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A LIVERPOOL BANKER, i8th Century. 







" Std widttieet ita Aumanum itifftniui* ttt, faeiita putarr 
<pu jam fota : Htc d taltbrit coyttorv, utnviatit ttrta 


" It it tnu tk*v optntd Uu gaUt and t*o<U tk* tray, (Al 
tftnt bt/ort ut ; tntt at g*ddit. Ml eommamdtrt." 
But JOIM>, " 





IN compiling this work my aim has been to give, 
briefly but clearly, a connected account of the 
origin and progress of all the private banks of 
Liverpool, to show who and what were the several 
partners, and to give short accounts of their 
family relations. It is an attempt to place 
on record succinct biographical notices, not to be 
found in such completeness elsewhere, of Liverpool 
bankers. The materials have been garnered, after 
long and patient quest, from numerous sources. 
The most .fertile source has been the newspapers 
of the period, of which in all about one hundred 
years have been studied. And to the advertise- 
ments in no small measure am I indebted for facts 
which have illumined the gloom in which the 
history of Liverpool banking rested. But the 
very spirit of the times precluded the newspapers 
from being other than exceedingly cautious in 


their accounts of men and events. The severity 
of the laws of libel induced extreme reticence. 
Hence much of real interest in the history of the 
banks has been for ever sealed from us. 

During the middle of the eighteenth century, 
when the commerce of Liverpool was rapidly 
expanding, it is somewhat surprising to find no 
established banks. Yet at that period there was 
a similar state of affairs throughout England. 
Mr. Hylton Price states that in 1750 there were 
not more than twelve banks established out of 
London. Yet, and especially in a busy com- 
mercial town like Liverpool, banking business 
had to be done, bills had to be negotiated, 
some one had to perform the function of a 
banker though not specifically known by the 
name. Hence arose a class of man, trader or 
merchant, who acted as bankers to the community, 
still retaining a separate business. The date 1760 
is not an exact, but a convenient, date to indicate 
the period of the rise of bankers. From the very 
nature of the process of evolution no precise date 
can be assigned. This is a point I wish to make 


clear: that in the case of all the early bankers 
there was no definite period at which it can be 
said that banking commenced. No bank came 
into existence as such all at once. In all the 
cases of the earliest banks there was gradual 
growth, side by side with the merchant's or 
trader's business, until ultimately one or the other 
became dominant. If the banking side became 
stronger, the bank made its public appearance. 
This being so, we need not look for palatial 
buildings, nor for costly interiors, in the early 
banks. Rather let us look for the merchant's 
counting-house or the tradesman's back parlour, 
with limited accessories in the extreme case 
a plain deal table. It is on record that 
Mr. Lewis Loyd, who established the famous 
bank of Jones, Loyd & Co. of Lothbury, 
E.G., ever kept in his bedroom the small 
table on which his first banking transactions 
were done in his shop at Manchester. 

But it is evident that force of character and 
special aptitudes were the prime factors in deter- 
mining the success or otherwise of the venture. 


The seed laid in good ground produced mighty 
trees, whilst that which fell in stony ground 
sprang up rapidly, and as rapidly withered 

As this work is entirely a personal effort, one 
which has its sole basis in my own research, it 
doubtless follows that there are errors of omis- 
sion and commission. I am in sincere hopes that 
the latter are but few and inconsiderable, and 
trust that my business training has succeeded in 
ensuring the desirable accuracy of dates. As 
to errors of omission, I have done what I 
could to avoid these. But there must be 
in possession of local families much interest- 
ing material bearing on the private side of 
banking in the early periods, and I would 
take it as a courteous act if any reader, having 
knowledge of such, would kindly communicate 
with me. 

For the rest, I desire to return my heartfelt 
thanks for the willing assistance given me through 
many years by Mr. Peter Cowell and his assistants, 
Messrs. Henry E. Curran, Charles Robertson, 


George M. Parry, and F. J. Waters, of the 
William Brown Street Library. In recent years 
Mr. George T. Shaw, Master and Librarian of 
the Athenaeum, has been unfailingly helpful. To 
John Nay lor, Esq., I am indebted for his critical 
supervision of the chapter on Leyland and 
Bullins. Messrs. Henry Young & Sons and 
myself are grateful for the ready assistance 
afforded in obtaining portraits and views by 
Mrs Henry Bright ; Mrs. Heywood Bright ; 
Mrs. G. W. Moss; John Naylor, Esq.; Alfred 
Holt, Esq.; C. E. Hope, Esq.; Arthur Hey- 
wood, Esq. ; J. Hope Simpson, Esq., and J. C. 
M. Jacobs, Esq., of the Bank of Liverpool, and 
the Directorate of the said bank ; the Direc- 
torate of the London City and Midland Bank ; 
the Committee of the Athenaeum; A. W. 
Stanyforth, Esq. ; Edward P. Thompson, Esq. ; 
Henry Yates Thompson, Esq. ; R. Stewart- 
Brown, Esq.; and Mr. G. F. Graham. 

In the majority of instances the portraits 
and views have never before been reproduced, 
and, being authentic illustrations of people and 


places of great importance in the history of 
Liverpool, they possess an interest and value 
which it is difficult to overestimate. 

To my sense of local patriotism is due the 
present volume, which it is hoped may help 
to an understanding of one of the forces which 
have contributed to the building up of my native 
city of Liverpool. 

To my own case apply the words of Izaak 
Walton : " And however it appeals to him, yet 
I am sure I have found a high content in the 
search and conference of what is here offered to 
the Reader's view and censure ; I wish him as 
much in the perusal of it." 



LIVERPOOL, November 1905. 









JOHN WVKE .... -49 


ROSCOE, & Co. 56 


















RICHARD HASLY . .... 165 


LlYLAND & BULUNJ . ... 169 





Moss, DALES, & Rooms Moss, DALE, ROGERS, & Moss 

Moss, ROGERS, & Moss . . . . .189 

JOSEPH HADWEN ....... aoi 


EVANS, CHIGWM, & HALL . . . 215 





ROBERT FAIR WEATHER . . . f ' .220 

MERSEY BANK ........ 223 

INDEX 233 



Portrait of 

WILLIAM ROSCOE .... To fact page 60 


HUGH JONES ..... ,,98 




THOMAS LEYLAND .... ,,169 


JOHN NAYLOR ..... 180 

JOHN Moss ..... 190 

THOMAS EDWARDS Moss . . . ,,198 

GILBERT WINTER Moss ... 200 

SAMUFL HOPE ..... ,, 205 



I'ievo of- 

LIVERPOOL EXCHANGE, 1820 . . To face page 46 

JOHM WYKE'S HOUSE, 1765 . 50 


HEYWOOD'S BANK, 1787 ... ,,96 

LEYLAND & BULLINS' BANK, 1807 . 172 

Moss's BANK, 1811-1864 . * ,, 194 

Facnnule of- 



NOTE ,,158 





The reference* to bankers in historic* of Liverpool Shipi and com- 
merce of eighteenth century Shipping trade*, foreign and home 
East India Company Road* and itage-coache* CaoaU 
Street* Lighting Water Numeration of hoo*ea Curiou* 

WHEN Samuel Derrick, Master of the Ceremonies 
at Bath, visited Liverpool in 1760, he found that 
he had " nowhere met with any account of the 
very opulent town," and lest his friend the Earl 
of Cork should be equally in ignorance, he pro- 
ceeded forthwith to remedy the defect. 

So the author, surveying the now numerous 
records of the annals of his native town, finds 
that no connected account of the early Banks 
of Liverpool has yet appeared. The earliest his- 
torian, Enfield (1773), docs not mention them, 
nor does Wallace (1795) norTroughton (1810); 
Smithers (1830) has but scanty reference to 
them, and Baines (1852), Brooke (1853), and 
even Picton (1873) have very sparse accounts. 
Yet few will gainsay that there is an exceed- 
ingly close connection between the growth of 


commerce and the growth of one of its chief 

The first Liverpool Directory was published in 
1766, and therein no banker is mentioned. In 
the Directory of 1774 we find in the body of 
the work "William Clarke, banker and linen 
draper, 34, Castle Street," and in the appendix 
"C. Caldwell & Co., banker's office, 37, Paradise 

When Samuel Derrick wrote there was a vast 
difference between the Liverpool he described 
and the Liverpool of to-day. Could the inhabit- 
ants of that date revisit the glimpses of the 
moon, their astonishment would be great at the 
wondrous developments in the size, population, 
and trade of the good town of Liverpool. For 
they were then proud, and justly proud, of the 
increasing wealth and importance of their town, 
brought about by the enterprise of its merchants 
and seamen. Consider that steam-power was 
not, that the leviathans of modern commerce 
were beyond the dreams of the most sanguine, 
yet that long voyages were conducted in what 
we should now deem the veriest cockle-shells of 
boats. The average tonnage in 1773 was but 
no tons, and thirty years later the average had 
risen only to 240. Yet these comparatively tiny 
barks were employed on round voyages of six 
to twelve months' duration. Moreover, onwards 


from 1776, when war was declared with America, 
followed in 1778 by war with France, in 1780 
with Spain and Holland, they had to contend 
with the* dangers of ships of war and privateers 
in addition to the ordinary perils of the sea. 
Pluck, perseverance, fertility of resource, and 
thorough practical seamanship were essential to 
the business, and with the aid of these, the com- 
mercial status of Liverpool was attained and 
sustained. The principal trades of Liverpool 
were the African and West Indian, but large 
supplementary business was done with the Baltic, 
salt principally being exported, and a progressive 
trade was carried on with America. This was 
of course impeded by the unhappy war with the 
Colonies, but after the recognition of the inde- 
pendence of the United States it soon recovered. 
The trade with Ireland was also very large, and 
considerable business was done in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. As yet the monopoly which the 
East India Company possessed in the trade with 
the East Indies and China had not been abro- 
gated. A public meeting on the subject was 
held in Liverpool in 1792, and as a result Dr. 
James Currie drew up a petition to Government 
praying that the monopoly should cease. The 
memorable commercial distress of the following 
year retarded the advance of the movement, and 
not till 1813 was there a partial refexation of 


the monopoly. This was followed by additional 
relief in 1834, but not till 1849 was there a com- 
plete sweeping away of the uncontrolled sway 
of John Company. When William Roscoe was 
Member of Parliament for Liverpool he, on 23rd 
February 1807, spoke in the House of Commons 
on the Abolition of Slavery Bill, and whilst sup- 
porting the Bill remarked on the wider spheres of 
commerce which would compensate England for 
the loss of the nefarious traffic, and incidentally 
protested against the monopoly of the East India 
Company. " Let there," said he, amidst applause 
from all sides of the House " let there be no 
monopoly but the monopoly of the country at 

Prior to 1760 there was no coach-road nearer 
to Liverpool than Warrington. In that year, 
however, a road was made practicable for coaches, 
and thus Liverpool was connected with the other 
towns of the kingdom. Before this all travel- 
ling had to be done on horseback, and such 
luggage and merchandise as was sent by land 
was transported on pack-horses, and for many 
years later, until 1785, pack-horses were em- 
ployed to carry His Majesty's mails. When 
this coach-road to Warrington was constructed, 
stage-coaches began to run between Liverpool 
and London (May 1760), and Liverpool and 
Manchester (September 1760). The house of 


call in Liverpool for the former was the '* Golden 
Talbot " in Water Street. The Bank of Liverpool 
now occupies its site. It was then kept by Mrs. 
Rathbone. The Manchester coach put up at the 
" Golden Fleece," on the north side of Dale Street. 
It was then kept by Thomas Banner, the ancestor 
of Mr. J. S. Harmood Banner. 1 

The growth of traffic thereafter rapidly in- 
creased, and the coaching business to and from 
Liverpool attained large proportions. But from 
the Manchester district the greater part of the 
goods came round by canals, which were com- 
menced in 1720, and gradually became numerous 
and important. The first real canal in England 
(i.e. a cutting of the water-way through solid 
earth) was the Sankey Canal, commenced in 
I 755>* which joins the Mersey at Fiddler's 
Ferry. Before this, so-called canals were only 
improvements of the natural water-way. 

From 1760 to the close of the eighteenth 
century the town was of very small extent. 
Castle Street was one of the principal streets, 
then as now, but it was not more than eighteen 
feet wide. In this street, and Redcross Street, 

1 Mr. Thomas Banner died at Richmond (Liverpool) on 6th July 
1807, aged {5, " revered by hit family and respected by all who knew 

' Thii canal wa completed 9th January 175!. It wa projected 
aad executed by Henry Berry, who died at hit house in Duke Street, 
Liverpool, on joth July if 12, aged 92. 


were the fashionable shops. All the streets were 
exceedingly narrow ; in addition, they were dirty 
and ill-paved, and all the principal streets had to 
undergo the costly and troublesome process of 
widening. Castle Street was widened in 1786-7, 
and Dale Street in 1807-8. The latter street 
was the main entrance into Liverpool, and in 
it, with the increase of coaching, all the various 
industries dependent thereon waxed and flourished. 
Hotels, inns, eating-houses, saddlers, blacksmiths, 
&c., were numerous. Vast stables, some of them 
capable of putting up 100 horses, were attached 
to the hotels and coaching establishments. 

Lord Street was a very narrow street, and was 
shut out from its present opening. The houses 
of Castle Street ran along to Cable Street, and 
entrance to Lord Street was to be had only by 
way of Castle Ditch, one end of which opened 
into Harrington Street, the other into Cable 
Street. In 1826 Lord Street was widened to the 
extent of four times its original size, 1 and the 
present noble entrance was provided by the 
construction of the Crescent. 

Pool Lane (now South Castle Street) is a very 

1 It is noteworthy that on the occasion of the laying of the first line 
of improvement on nth July 1826 the tenant of the then No. 80, 
Mr. John Orrell, a saddler, sufficiently recognised the real import of 
the coming change by providing a cold repast and cold punch for 
about 100 perions, in order that the function should be properly 


ancient street. As the name indicates, it led to 
the cradle of Liverpool's commercial greatness, 
the Pool of Liverpool, which was, under the 
Act 8 Anne, c. 12, converted into the first dock 
in England. In 1 8 1 1 the Dock Trust obtained 
powers to close the Old Dock, and to erect a 
custom-house and other buildings on the site. 
But this was not put into effect for several years, 
and not till September 1826 was a start made 
by clearing the dock of all shipping. The other 
streets converging on this centre of commerce, 
Duke Street and Hanover Street, were important 
streets. In them, many of the men whose enter- 
prise gave Liverpool the opportunity of becoming 
what it is resided ; for these streets were high- 
class residential streets, the merchant himself 
being in possession, whilst his counting-house 
and warehouses were at the back of the dwelling- 

Church Street, from 1760 to practically the 
close of the century, was entirely a residential 
street. Bold Street was commenced to be laid 
out in 1786, and was also a residential street. 
Ranelagh Street, Brownlow Hill, and Mount Plea- 
sant had a few houses in them. Park Lane was 
in existence, and in Great George Street building 
was commenced in 1785. But all the land lying 
between Church Street and Berry Street, and 
between Duke Street and Park Lane, was not 


built on till later. The population of Toxteth 
Park was but scant and scattered, and taking the 
town in another direction we find so late as 1 807 
" Bevington Lodge for sale, one mile from Liver- 
pool Exchange, with an extensive garden of fruit- 
trees, faces Everton Hill, and the back overlooks 
the Mersey." Much later, in 1 839, Everton itself 
is described as the " rural retreat of commercial 

Till towards the close of the eighteenth century 
the district north of Tithebarn Street was open 
country. Near the foot of the present Richmond 
Row the stream from the Moss Lake entered 
through the present Downe Street, and clustered 
on either side of the stream were the kennels of 
the Liverpool Hound Hunt, a pack of harriers 
to which the Corporation was a subscriber. But 
Liverpool was behind other large towns in much 
regarding its streets. As before stated, they were 
narrow, dirty, and ill-paved. Moreover, they 
had no side-walks, or parapets as they were, and 
are, locally called. So late as 1799 we ^ ave sucn 
a picture as this: "The spirited and laudable 
example set the town by the owners and occupiers 
of houses and shops in Lord Street in flagging 
the footwalks opposite their premises will, we hope, 
be speedily followed. ... It is an improvement 
accomplished in every other principal city and town 
in the kingdom." Even when this was done 


the inhabitants were not too careful to keep them 
clean. In 1802 about seventy of the principal 
inhabitants of Castle Street, Lord Street, Church 
Street, and Pool Lane were fined 5$. each by 
the Mayor for not sweeping and cleansing the 
parapet walks before their houses, shops, &c. 

The town was lighted by oil-lamps, and as this 
was done by contract, it was not too well done, 
and many were the collisions between the authori- 
ties and the contractors on this score. Not till 
1819 was Castle Street lighted with gas. 

Water was obtained from wells, the sandstone 
formation yielding a very fair supply. Those 
inhabitants who had not these conveniences were 
supplied from huge barrels mounted on wheels, 
drawn by a horse, at so much per bucket, or 
hessian, or " heshin," as it was locally called. In 
the drawing by Herdman, depicting the burning 
of the Town Hall in 1795, two of these tanks arc 
shown with their accompanying hessians. The 
price in 1765 was four pails full for a penny. 
In their Improvement Act of 1786 the Corpora- 
tion took power to supply the inhabitants with 
water from the wells. But nothing was done 
in the matter until a company obtained powers, 
under the Act 39 Gco. III. c. 36, to revive the 
powers which Sir Cleave Moore had obtained in 
8 Anne, c. 25, "to bring water into Liverpool 
from the Rootle springs." Then the Corporation 


formed a company of their own, the subscription 
for which was immediately taken up, and made 
over to it the powers acquired in 1786. Both 
companies then set to work, and supplied the 
town through wooden pipes, afterwards replaced 
by iron. Some of these wooden pipes are 
occasionally met with in digging foundations. 

The numeration of the houses was very un- 
satisfactory, and occasioned much tribulation 
to good John Gore in the compilation of his 
directories. There is a certain grim humour on 
the title-page of the directories of 1796 and 
1 800 : " With the Numbers as they are (or ought 
lo be] affixed to their houses." 

The system employed was that the numeration 
commenced on the left side of a street and con- 
tinued consecutively to the bottom, and then 
turned up on the other side. Thus in a finished 
street the first number and the last number 
would face each other. Take a familiar street, 
Dale Street. In 1818 George Forwood had an 
office at 2 Dale Street, and immediately opposite 
was the bank of Messrs. Moss, Dale, Rogers, 
and Moss, No. 179. Until matters were settled 
there was sometimes a doubt as to which end 
of a street the numeration commenced. For 
instance, in the case of Castle Street, in 1793, 
the advertisements in the papers reverse the 
order in which the directory places them. The 


latter commenced at the Dale Street end, the 
former at that of James Street. This consecutive 
method of numeration was in use till 1838-9. 
The directory for 1839 employs for the first time 
the alternate mode of numeration. In this con- 
nection it is worthy of note that in many of the 
old-established streets of London the old method 
is still used. The Strand is a familiar example. 

With reference to the description of the in- 
habitants, as given in the directory and elsewhere, 
we find several curiosities. Anybody above " the 
rank of a shopkeeper" (to misquote W. S. Gilbert) 
is styled a merchant ; and be it noted that the 
place where the latter did his business was a 
" counting - house," while a mere broker or 
attorney employed an "office" for his work. 
A note on the gradual putting forward of the 
dining hour will be found in a subsequent 

We have some quaint trades mentioned in our 
old Liverpool, of which " leather breeches maker," 
for example, has gone with the post-boy and the 
changed mode of travelling. 

With increased knowledge and application of 
science the " dealer in leeches " and " bleeder 
with leeches " have gone as distinctive trades. 
I regret the disappearance of the " stocking 
grafter," illustrating so well the story of the old 
lady who boasted she had worn one pair of 


stockings for thirty years, renewing the foot or 
leg portion as required. The "money scrivener" 
has disappeared in name only, but the "corn 
meter " has gone for ever. Changed conditions 
of shipping have submerged the " broker for the 
flats," but, had he a monopoly, what a business 
he would enjoy to-day on the Liverpool Cotton, 
Corn, and Stock Exchanges. 



Riie of manufacturing proceises French Revolution of 1793 Bank 
Restriction Act Increase of country banks National Debt 
Profits of Bank of England and Bank of Ireland Contois Com- 
mercial distress Peace of 1814 and 1815, and consequent effect 
on prices First issue of sovereigns and half-sovereigns Partial 
resumption of cash payments Scaling down of interest on loans 
Large issue of paper money Speculations of 1(14 and 1(15, 
and consequent grave crisis Great stoppage of banks Establish- 
ment of branches of Bank of England Commencement of joint- 
stock banks Stamp duties Liverpool joint-stock banks 
Gradual supersession of private banks. 

THE latter part of the eighteenth century and 
the commencement of the nineteenth mark the 
period when manufactures and commerce parted 
from the old and embarked into the new methods, 
which have resulted in the enormous expansion 
of modern times. It was an inventive age, and 
the year 1767, when Hargrcaves invented the 
spinning-jenny, was the starting-point of suc- 
cessive additions to the mechanical substitutes 
for the slow processes of hand labour. This im- 
provement was followed in 1769 by Arkwright 


taking out his first patent for spinning with 
rollers. In 1774 the Rev. Dr. Cartwright 
patented his invention of the power-loom, and 
in 1776 the mule was invented by Samuel 
Crompton. Then followed the application of 
steam-power. Watt in 1782 made himself illus- 
trious by the patent of the perfected steam- 
engine. Many improvements followed, until 
Robert Fulton in America had the satisfaction 
of seeing his paddle -steamers on the Hudson 
from 1 806 onwards. The first steamboat on the 
Mersey arrived in May 1815, having been built 
to ply between Liverpool and Runcorn. 

Liverpool was the chief port for the output 
of the improved processes, and greatly benefited 
thereby. But the progress was impeded by the 
various wars from 1776 onwards. When peace 
seemed established, and commerce was rapidly in- 
creasing, came the war of the French Revolution. 
On the declaration of war in 1793 there was 
a panic throughout the country. Hundreds of 
commercial houses became bankrupt, and about, 
seventy country bankers stopped payment : one-' 
third of the number then existing. In Liverpool, 
Charles Caldwell & Co. became bankrupt, and 
Gregson & Co. had to have their affairs looked 
into, but survived the ordeal. In this con- 
nection Dr. James Currie writes under date 
1 6th March 1793: "The first merchant in 


Liverpool has failed, and many others must 
follow. Private credit is entirely at a stand." 
In this extremity the Corporation of Liverpool, 
on behalf of the town, sought aid from the Bank 
of England, but were refused it. They then 
obtained a special Act of Parliament enabling 
them to issue promissory notes against produce. 
This had the effect of relieving the distress. 
A detailed account of this unique transaction 
appears in a subsequent chapter. The Govern- 
ment introduced a special Bill for temporary 
advances on the credit of the country, having the 
same intentions, and under the Act 332 persons 
made application for advances to the amount of 
,3,855, 624. Of these 238 were granted to the 
extent of ,2,202,200. 

Gold, which was so much required for the pur- 
poses of war, became scarce, and the drain on the 
Bank became so excessive that by 25th February 
1 797 the stock of gold was only i ,2 70,000. Then 
came the Bank Restriction Act. It was originally 
stated that the restriction was to last for fifty-two 
days only, but, with brief intervals, it lasted till 
1825. When the payment of cash for notes was 
not compulsory came the great increase in the 
number of private bankers, all paper issuing. They 
increased in eight years from 230 to 517, and the 
increase went on until, in the year 1814, there 
were no less than 940. The panic of 1815-16 


wiped out so many that at the end of the latter 
year there were only 752, and further depletions, 
culminating in the dib&cle of 1825, reduced the 
number to 552. Thus in eleven years about 400 
so-called banks became bankrupt. 

In the meantime the requirements of the 
Government were such that the National Debt 
went up by leaps and bounds. Each successive 
year saw a fresh loan, until from ^260,000,000 
in 1793, the National Debt reached the colossal 
figure of ^"895,000,000 in 1816. In the words 
of a sprightly writer : " During the war of the 
French Revolution . . . the Bank of England, 
unrestrained by a liability to pay in specie, diffused 
its notes with a prodigal hand ; and every man 
who could get a bill accepted could get it cashed. 
. . . The Minister had hundreds of millions to 
borrow in loans, and tens of millions to raise in 
revenue ; and loans could not be raised and taxes 
paid unless trade was lively and the circulation 
full and free ; and accordingly, when the Prime 
Minister winked his eye, the Bank governor 
nodded his head, and bank-notes were dealt out 
like cards at a gambling table ; every man who 
could give an IOU to the marker being at 
perfect liberty to play the game he pleased, and 
take his chance of ruin in the general sport." 

Hence of Pitt it was said, Auream invcnit, 
chartaceam rclinquct. 


Through the inflation of their respective issues 
the Bank of England in nineteen years made a 
profit of ,29,2 80,636 on a capital of 1 1 ,642,00x5, 
and the Bank of Ireland a profit of \ 1,361,650 
on a capital of 3, 000,000. 

In such a state of affairs it was only too prob- 
able that there must be violent fluctuations in 
the price of commodities. Consols in 1797 fell 
as low as 47 , and in 1798 to 47!, the highest 
point reached in the latter year being 58. 

In this connection Dr. James Currie writes, 
under date February 22, 1797: "Orders have 
been sent up to London to sell (Funds) without 
restriction to a great amount. . . . Inconsequence 
of this a principal banker told me that money had 
flowed back on him so much that he was abso- 
lutely at a loss what to do with it ; as he, for his 
own part, would not purchase another sixpence in 
the Funds, and could not lend it out on com- 
mercial adventure in the present state of things. 
Thus large sums are beginning to rest in the 
bankers' hands without the power of converting 
them to account." 

But very shortly there was the swing of the 
pendulum in the opposite direction. Liverpool 
was hardly pressed in 1799, and an Act had to 
be passed, " an Act for enabling His Majesty to 
direct the issue of Exchequer Bills to a limited 
amount, and in the manner therein mentioned, 


for the relief of the merchants of Liverpool and 
Lancaster." Commissioners were appointed, and 
an office opened in Water Street for the purpose. 
Banking matters in Liverpool appeared to go 
on smoothly. Certainly an ephemeral bank, Sir 
Michael Cromie, Pownoll, & Hartman, dis- 
appeared in 1 80 1, but nothing of moment 
occurred till 1807. That year witnessed the 
accession to the list of bankers of Moss & Co. 
and Joseph Hadwen. Thomas Leyland also 
separated himself from Clarke & Roscoe, and 
commenced the firm of Leyland & Bullin. 
Gregson & Co. and Richard Hanly both sus- 
pended payment. But the close of 1809 and 
the whole of 1810 witnessed great commercial 
distress. There was so great a fall in prices and 
destruction of private credit as was then without 
precedent. It is said that half the traders in the 
kingdom became bankrupt, and it is certain that 
Liverpool had its share. 

When on Friday, 2oth July 1810, the settling 
day for Consols on the London Stock Exchange, 
it was found there was no one to receive the 
Stocks bought, there was an alarming shock to 
mercantile confidence. The Government loan 
for that year, 14,000,000, had been taken by 
two firms, Baring & Co. and Goldschmidt & 
Co. The Stocks suddenly fell to a discount. 
Panic ensued, and the discount was as much as 


6 per cent. Sir F. Baring had died, and Gold- 
schmidt took his losses so much to heart that 
he shot himself. 

The loss of confidence and consequent panic 
arose out of the speculative dealings with the 
American possessions of Spain and Portugal, 
which in 1808 had been thrown open to direct 
trade with England. Vast amounts of English 
manufactures had been sent abroad in 1808 
and 1809, and caused an inflation of prices 
in England. After a while it was seen there 
was no return for the vast exports. And small 
wonder, in many cases. Goods, sent specu- 
latively to places where there were few or no 
warehouses, had to lie on the beach ; and discri- 
mination was not shown, for stoves and hearth- 
rugs were sent to Buenos Aires ! Then came 
the fall in prices, and panic took possession of 
the whole trading community, and extensive em- 
barrassments resulted. 

Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser for I3th August 
1810 has an admirable leaderette : 

" It is lamentable to observe the wantonness with 
which men speak of the credit of the most eminent 
houses, in consequence of the recent distresses in the 
commercial world. Talk of gossiping at the tea-table ! 
The tongues of antiquated maidens are not more loose, 
nor their insinuations more scandalous, than those of 
some gossiping men ; and when it is considered that 


credit is to a merchant what chastity is to a woman, this 
licentious practice of whispering away reputation cannot 
be too severely condemned." 

Early in 1 8 1 1 the Government found it neces- 
sary to introduce a " Commercial Credit " Bill, to 
enable traders to obtain means to finance their 
holdings of produce. The second reading of the 
Bill took place on i6th March, and on the pre- 
vious day a meeting of the principal merchants, 
brokers, and traders was convened at the Liver- 
pool Town Hall to take into consideration the 
expediency of an application to Government for 
a participation in the loan of Exchequer Bills 
" now about to be issued for the relief of com- 
merce." The resolution declared that this town, 
from the peculiar nature, extent, and importance 
of its commerce, was in a situation to require, 
and was entitled to expect, a participation in the 
public aid now about to be offered to the trading 
part of the nation ; and that it was highly ex- 
pedient that a respectful application to that effect 
should be made to Government without delay. 

The third reading of the Bill was carried by 
41 to 4, and on 8th April an office was opened 
in the Exchange for the Commissioners for the 
issue of Exchequer Bills. 

The question of the monopoly of the East 
India Company as to the trade with India and 

ii FALL OF PRICES IN 1814-15 ' 

China was constantly occupying the minds of 
every business community in England, and Liver- 
pool naturally wished to share in that Eastern 
trade. On lyth March 1812 a meeting of 
merchants, &c., took place in the Town Hall to 
take into consideration the propriety of petition- 
ing Parliament for the wished-for participation. 
When partial relief came in 1813, Mr. John 
Gladstone was one of the first to avail himself of 
the opportunities offered. 

In 1813 John and James Aspinall relinquished 
their tea, &c., business and became bankers solely, 
under the title of John Aspinall & Son. 

Though matters on the surface seemed fairly 
prosperous, yet there was a deep internal unrest. 
The gulf between the nominal and the actual 
value of Bank of England paper was yearly 
widening (see Chap. III.), and thus prices were 
become more and more inflated. 

The advent of peace in 1814, and the subse- 
quent entire cessation of war in 1815, pricked the 
bubble. Prices then tumbled on ail sides. Dur- 
ing the war, every manufacture was stimulated. 
Copper, tin, lead, and iron were all required, and 
were extensively mined for. As a consequence, 
coals were in demand. There was need for large 
quantities of farm produce. Thus enclosures of 
common lands were made on a vast scale. From 
1795 to '815 no less than 1798 Enclosure Bills 


passed the House of Commons, and from 1790 
to 1820 no less than 3,965,270 acres passed from 
communal to private hands. Those who would 
refrain from stealing the goose from the common 
did not scruple to steal the common from the 
goose. With the cessation of war came glutted 
markets ; for demand stopped, whilst production 
went on. Shipping correspondingly suffered. 
For commerce the result was naturally disastrous, 
and a great wave of ruin swept over the country. 
It was felt till well on in 1 8 1 6, and during the two 
years 1815 and 1816, 240 banking firms either 
partially suspended business or became bankrupt. 

Locally, the banking firms of Roscoe, Clarke, 
& Roscoe, and John Aspinall & Son, were in- 
volved. The former held out hopes of a surplus, 
and was put in train for liquidation, but the 
latter entirely succumbed. In September 1816 
a town's meeting was summoned by the Mayor, 
to take into consideration the distresses of the 
country and the best means to be adopted for 
remedying the same. The condition of the 
country was indeed grievous, so much so that 
the intended resumption of cash payments was 
entirely prevented. It was then intended to call 
in all ,1 and 2 notes. 

The following year saw the change in the 
coinage. The Gazette for 8th July 1817 con- 
tains the particulars of the new sovereigns and 

it CRISIS OF 1819 ) 3 

half -sovereigns which were to supplant the 
existing gold coinage. Vast amounts of gold 
were coined, but the failure of the harvest in 
1818 necessitated its exportation in payment for 
imported corn. The total amount so expended 
was jy, 000,000. In 1818 there was a further 
addition to the silver coinage of ^3,000,000, 
principally in crowns. 

The year 1819 was also exceedingly bad for 
the commerce of the country. A correspondent 
in Gore's Advertiser in April gives a very gloomy 
picture of Liverpool : " Commerce was never in 
such a state as at present, property of every kind 
depreciating daily. Holders of colonial produce 
generally, and of cotton especially, are particularly 
hard hit. The recent failures will produce most 
disastrous results, not only directly, but indirectly, 
by the destruction of confidence." He therefore 
appeals to the merchants of Liverpool to apply 
at once for a grant of Exchequer Bills from 

But Government could do nothing. They 
were at their wits' end for money. The Bank 
of England had contracted its issues, a panic 
ensued, and a rush for gold was made of such 
severity that on 5th April 1819 Parliament 
hurried through a Bill restricting the Bank of 
England from paying their notes in cash. Want 
and discontent pervaded the kingdom. Allusion 


only is necessary in these pages to the " Battle 
of Pcterloo" on i6th July in this year. The 
year 1822 was next fixed for the resumption 
of cash payments, and the Bank of England 
advertised that they would remit any amount of 
gold coin of the realm in sums not less than 
^3000 on application to the chief cashier 
prior to ist February, extended afterwards to 
ist March, and again to ist April. But the 
depression in the country was so great that 
the scheme had further to be postponed, and 
an Act of Parliament was passed authorising 
the issue of country bankers' small notes until 
5th January 1833, the year of the expiry of 
the Bank of England's charter. 

In the following year, 1823, rates of interest 
began to droop, and in 1824 Government scaled 
down its Four per Cents, to 3^ per cent. 

In Liverpool the banks gave notice that on and 
after ist January 1824 it was their intention to 
calculate interest and discount approved bills at 
the reduced rate of 4 per cent. There would 
naturally be a corresponding reduction in the 
interest allowed on deposits. The Bank of 
Scotland, whose rate of interest on deposits was 
4 per cent, in 1822, reduced it in 1823 to 3 per 
cent., and in 1824 to 2 per cent. 

Having no longer the fear of extinction before 
their eyes, the country bankers, who had largely 


restricted their issues, now expanded them to the 
fullest extent, and the Bank of England issued 
its notes against its large stock of gold. Lord 
Liverpool stated in the House that the amount 
of country bankers* notes stamped in 1821, 1822, 
and 1823 had been on an average a little above 
four millions. In 1824 it reached six millions, 
and in 1825 exceeded eight millions. The low- 
ness of interest obtainable, and the plethora of 
circulation, fostered speculation, and speculation 
became rampant both in foreign and home 

In 1823 had begun a series of loans to foreign 
nations, principally to the newly recognised South 
American Republics and Brazil, and in the three 
years 1823-4-5 no less than 56, 000,000 was 
advanced in twenty-six loans. 

Bullion was exported : 


Gold . 

Silver . . . @ 55. = 10,066,5 52, 55. od. 

Merchandise, too, of every description was 
sent out in vast quantities. Every project that 






. 14,545,821 


1 1,568,258 







& 17*- & 

= 11,616,981, 55. 3d. 


could enter into the mind of man became an 
object of joint-stock enterprise, and every de- 
scription of person in the realm, who could 
find the wherewithal, joined in one enterprise 
or another. 

It has been computed by Mr. H. M. Hynd- 
man that the Joans to foreign States amounted to 
^86,000,000, and that in addition the following 
ipint-stock companies were subscribed : 

2O Companies to build railways . 13,500,000 
22 Bank and insurance companies . - 36,260,000 
1 1 Gas companies .... 8,000,000 
17 Foreign mining companies . 18,200,000 

8 English and Irish mining com- 

panies . . ' . . 10,580,000 

9 Companies for construction of 

canals, docks, and steamers . 10,580,000 
27 Companies for various industrial 

businesses .... 12,000,000 


It is worthy of note that one of the projects of 
1825 was the Manchester Ship Canal Company, 
with a capital of 1,000,000 in 10,000 shares of 
100 each. 

Under these influences there was a rise in prices, 
which was accentuated by other and even more 
pernicious directing powers. " It became " (says 
Mr. Tooke) " the business of speculators and 

it SPECULATIONS OF 1824-5 *7 

brokers to look minutely through the general 
prices current, with a view to discover any 
article that had not advanced, in order to 
make it the subject of anticipated demand. If 
a person, not under the influence of the pre- 
vailing delusion, inquired for what reason any 
particular article had risen, the common answer 
was, * Everything else has risen, and therefore this 
ought to rise* ' 

The following is a picture of the mania that 
had seized the whole community: "Persons re- 
moved from all business, retired officers, widows 
and single women of small fortune, risked their 
incomes or their savings in every species of desper- 
ate enterprise ; and the competition and scramble 
for premiums in concerns which ought never to 
have been otherwise than at a discount, were 
perfectly astonishing to those who took no part 
in these transactions." 

By July 1825 the exchanges became unfavour- 
able, and the Bank of England by private sales of 
Exchequer Bills began to draw in its circulation. 
Vast quantities of produce had been imported, 
and, with the general lock-up of capital in the 
various projects, there were no bills to pay for the 
importations. Hence gold had to be exported, 
and as the demand became greater the Bank 
became stiff about discounting, and further drew 
in its issues. The bill discounters followed suit, 


and the London bankers refused accommodation 
to their country correspondents. They in their 
turn declined discounts offered by their clients, 
and by December the whole of " Great Britain 
and Ireland was in one scene of confusion, dismay, 
and bankruptcy." The gold in the Bank of Eng- 
land had dwindled down until there was only 
,1,261,000. The first great stoppage of banks 
was that of Godfrey, Wentworth, & Co., of 
London, with their branches at Bradford, Wake- 
field, and York. On 5th December Sir Peter 
Pole & Co., after a struggle for a week, became 
bankrupt. They were agents for about forty 
country banks. Then followed during the next 
six weeks crash after crash, mercantile and bank- 
ing, of the latter alone about seventy. 1 

There were frequent Cabinet meetings, and the 

1 A moving account of the miseries of this period is given in 
Harriet Martineau's '-History of England during the Thirty Years' 
Peace," book ii. chap. viii. : 

"There are some now of the most comfortable middle-class order 
who cannot think of that year without bitter pain. They saw many 
parents grow white-haired in a week's time : lovers parted on the eve 
of marriage : light-hearted girls sent forth from the shelter of home 
to learn to endure the destiny of the governess or the sempstress : 
governesses, too old for a new station, going actually into the work- 
house : rural gentry quitting their lands; and whole families relin- 
quishing every prospect in life and standing as bare as Lear and his 
strange comrades on the heath. They saw something even worse than 
all thii. They saw the ties of family honour snapped by the strain of 
cupidity first, and discontent afterwards, and the members falling off" 
from one another as enemies. They saw the hope of the innocent, the 
faith of the pious, the charity of the generous, the integrity of the 
(rutted, giving way." 

ii CRISIS OF 182$ .-, 

Mint worked day and night to turn out gold, 
which disappeared as fast as it was issued. The 
small notes of the Bank, i and ^"2, were 
reissued in the country, and were of help to 
allay the panic. Parliament reassembled on 2nd 
February 1826, and the question of the banking 
of the country was uppermost in every man's 

First and foremost the question of the small 
notes was finally settled. Power had been given, 
as noted above, to issue till 1833. It was seen 
that stringent measures were necessary, so on 22nd 
March 1826 an enactment forbade the further 
stamping on any notes under ^5, and the date 
of the final abolition of all existing small notes 
was fixed at 5th April 1829. 

Negotiations between the Government and the 
Bank of England resulted in the establishment of 
branches of the Bank in several provincial towns, 
and the granting of the privilege to form banks 
consisting of more than six partners. This was 
enacted by 7 Geo. IV. cap. 46, "An Act for 
the better regulating co-partnership of certain 
bankers in England.'* But the powerful and 
malign influence of the Bank of England pre- 
vented the latter provision from operation except 
at a distance of sixty-five miles from London. It 
was not till August 1833 that the evilly selfish 
policy of the Bank was compulsorily changed, and 


the benefit of joint-stock banking extended to the 
whole of England. Even now it is a blot on the 
Free Trade policy of England that the issue of 
notes by bankers, other than the Bank of Eng- 
land, should be prohibited in the circle of sixty- 
five miles radius around London. 

But distress was universal, and although 
Government felt that this commercial crisis 
should work out its own salvation, it was con- 
strained by force of circumstances to compel the 
unwilling Bank of England to make advances 
against produce. The amount was limited to 
three millions. 

In Liverpool the Commissioners appointed by 
the Bank of England to administer the loan, in 
sums of not less than ^500 nor more than 
.10,000, were John Ashton Case, Thomas 
Fletcher, David Hodgson, and Lister Ellis, with 
James Bunnell as Secretary. The committee 
rooms were over the Government office at the 
top of Water Street. The measures adopted 
proved successful, credit was gradually re-estab- 
lished, and the hoarded gold was again brought 
into circulation. 

The establishment of branches of the Bank 
of England, and the formation of joint-stock 
banks, were not new ideas, but had, since the 
crises of 1819 and 1821, been discussed both 
publicly and privately, and the present crisis 


served as an opportunity for bringing them into 
being. 1 

For example, in Liverpool in 1822 the papers 
of the day stated that it was the intention of 
Government to permit the formation of joint- 
stock banks at a distance of not less than sixty- 
five miles from London, and that the principal 
merchants had had one or two private meetings. 
At the meetings the advantages of the Joint- 
Stock system were tabulated. The reasons given 
will now be read with interest : 

1. Capital, adequate for every contingency. 

2. Safe deposit for capital. 

3. An office for discount of respectable bills, 

free from the dangerous temptations, pre- 
sented on the one hand by too great 
liberality, and the fatal consequences 
resulting, on the other, from a capri- 
cious reserve, in mercantile accommoda- 

4. The means of allowing, on shortest notice, 

1 In Nevember 1807 the Court of King's Bench granted a rule with 
a view of making inquiry into the legality of the formation of joint- 
stock companies. In 1 8s* Mr. Joplin, of Newcastle, issued a 
pamphlet in which he advocated the deleting of the clause in the Bank 
of England's charter which restricted banking co-partnerships of 
more than six persons. He communicated with several mercantile 
communities with reference to the matter, and in Liverpool some 
of the leading merchants memorialised the Ministers. Joplin origi- 
nated the National Provincial Bank of England, and founded the 


the most ample allowances on real secu- 
rities ; or on a regulated system of per- 
sonal guarantee. 

5. A secure basis for the issue (if it should be 
thought desirable) of local notes, upon 
such principles as will render them ex- 
empt from the inconvenience and hazard 
of private bankers' notes. 

Also in 1817 we find rumours current in 
Liverpool as to the establishment of branches 
of the Bank of England in various parts of the 

The Bank of England opened branches at 
Gloucester, Manchester, and Swansea, in the 
Border named, in 1826; followed in 1827 by 
Birmingham, Liverpool, Bristol, and Leeds, in 
1828 by Newcastle, in 1829 by Hull and 
Norwich, and in 1834 by Plymouth and Ports- 
mouth. A branch was opened at Exeter in 
1827, but the business was removed to Ply- 
mouth in 1834. 

This extended system of business was received 
with a considerable amount of opposition. On 
the one hand the already established banks 
determined to compete for discounts. In 1827, 
while the Bank of England was discounting 
at 4 per cent., the Liverpool private banks were 
quoting 3^ per cent., and the Manchester bankers 


came to a resolution to discount at 3 per cent. 
On the other hand, the Bank of England was 
strenuously antagonistic to the scheme, but, like 
Mercy, it has been found " to bless him that 
gives and him that takes." 

In objecting to the Bank of England poaching 
on their preserves the country bankers had a real 
grievance. The Bank of England, in addition 
to its other great privileges, had the right of 
compounding for its stamp duties, while other 
bankers had not. 

It came to this, that the stamp duty on a bill 
on London at 2 1 days* date cost the Bank of 
England only 5d., whilst the cost to the country 
banker was 35. 6d., and that the cost of a circula- 
tion of ; 1 0,000 a year in ^20 bills of exchange 
was only ^35 to the Bank of England, whilst it 
cost the country banker ^650. This disparity 
was too glaring to be passed over, and the Act 9 
George IV. cap. 23 placed the country banks on 
the same footing as the Bank of England as to 
composition for stamp duties, and allowed them 
to include in their composition bills up to 21 
days' date. 

The Bank of England also was opposed to the 
granting of charters for the establishment of 
joint-stock banks, and had hitherto been success- 
ful in prohibiting the issuing of drafts on London 
for less than 50, but in 1829 the righteous 


claims in these respects of the general banking 
community were ceded. 

The first joint - stock bank to commence 
business in Liverpool was the Manchester and 
Liverpool District Bank, which took premises at 
45 Pool Lane (now South Castle Street) in 
November 1829, under the management of 
James Baird. The date of the general com- 
mencement of the bank is given in the Report 
of the Select Committee of the House of 
Commons as ist December 1829. On i6th 
May 1831 the Bank of Liverpool, the first 
joint-stock bank having its head office in 
Liverpool, was opened at 34 Brunswick Street, 
under the management of Joseph Langton. 

The spread of the joint-stock system was 
gradual but general. In many cases the existing 
private bank was transformed into a joint-stock 
bank. But some of the wealthiest and most 
firmly founded private banks had an astonishing 
vitality, steadily resisting the popular wave. 

Of the seven private banks of Liverpool 
existing in 1830, two became in the next few 
years joint-stock banks, one failed, and another 
did not become a joint-stock bank till late in 
the forties Barned's Bank. Of the remaining 
three, Moss & Co. was converted in the year 
1864 into the North- Western Bank, and the 
latter amalgamated with the London City and 


Midland Bank Ltd. in 1897; A. Hcywood, 
Sons, & Co. was sold to the Bank of Liverpool 
in 1883; whilst Leyland & Bullins endured till 
1901, when it amalgamated with the North and 
South Wales Bank Ltd. 



Origin of private bankers Issue of country notes Dining hour in 
Liverpool Bank holidays Currency of bills Coinage and 
currency Bank of England notes Depreciation of bank notes 
Fictitious payees Bankers' commission Generosity of Liver- 
pool bankers Early nineteenth-century Christian names Dress 
of bankers of eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 

BEFORE proceeding to a detailed account of the 
several banking houses of Liverpool, it will be 
well to consider who were bankers, and what 
were the conditions of banking. 

The banker of this early period was a merchant, 
or larger trader, who grafted the business of bank- 
ing on to his own affairs. He would have an 
account with some London banker for the purpose 
of paying his acceptances for the produce in which 
he dealt, and for the collection or discounting 
of the acceptances he> received. Some of his 
neighbours, whose businesses were not so ex- 
tensive, found it a convenience to pass their 
transactions through the more substantial man, 
and it was a convenience to the London banker 

also, as it avoided the multiplicity of small 





^ j-l S 


1 *r > ; ^ , 

^, i I 

'7(7 x : 


tccounts. Then the savings of the people were 
intrusted to the merchant, whose probity and 
success had begotten confidence. So the business 
grew, and gradually came the development from 
trader and banker to banker pure and simple. 

The business of discounting acceptances and 
promissory notes, the collection of bills and 
country notes, the remittance of payments, and 
the retirement of acceptances now formed his 
daily business. For the purpose of remittance 
the banker would either issue his own notes, 
or his draft on his London "correspondent," 
as the London agent was then called. For the 
purpose of implementing the London account 
he would send up notes of various bankers, 
acceptances, and occasionally specie. In Liver- 
pool bankers did not issue notes, but drafts only, 
" at one or two months' date, as has been the 
usual and customary practice." And, indeed, 
Lancashire generally was averse from the system 
of local notes. Far otherwise was it in the 
neighbouring Yorkshire and most other parts 
of the kingdom. In time of trouble the use of 
local notes led to much disaster. After the 
passing of the Bank Restriction Act the number 
of issuing bankers rapidly increased, and the 
notes varied in value from eighteen fence in 
Yorkshire and the Isle of Wight to the usual 
guinea and $ notes. 


In 1 807, apropos of the failure of many banks 
in Yorkshire, Bi Hinge in his Liverpool Advertiser 
thus delivers himself: 

"We have ever been of opinion (and our opinion is 
justified by daily experience) that the circulation of 
provincial bankers' paper is highly injurious to the 
public interests, because it enables speculative, designing, 
and often penny /ess men to create a false capital, and 
thereby to enter into schemes which too frequently 
involve thousands in ruin ; for, having nothing to lose 
themselves, they run, neck or nothing^ into the wildest 
and most extravagant adventures, careless of the con- 
sequences. To the honour of Lancashire be it known, 
not a single note is issued by any banking house in 
the county ; and notwithstanding the magnitude of its 
manufactures, commerce, and population, nothing is 
current but Bank of England paper and sterling specie : 
nor is the least inconvenience experienced in consequence 
of this wise regulation." 

The bulk of the Liverpool bankers arose out 
of general merchants, some few from tea-dealers, 
and one from linen merchants. In the majority 
of cases, after declaring themselves bankers, their 
trading business was conducted hand-in-hand with 
the banking business ; that is to say, though 
mainly bankers, they had subsidiary businesses. 
But the more successful bankers gradually freed 
themselves from such entanglements, and relied 
entirely on banking. 

As with the general merchant, so the banker 


resided over his business premises. In the case 
of several partners, the junior generally occupied 
the bank house. The hours of attendance were 
at first from 9 to I and 3 to 6. The interval 
was the regular dining " hour " of the com- 
munity. With reference to this Dr. Curric 
writes in 1792 : 

" Sixty years ago people returned from Exchange 
about 1 2.30, and generally at down to Dinner before 
than after one. In 1780 the general Hour was 
a o'clock halt-an-Hour after on set Days, or some- 
times 3 with the Highest Quality. When the late 
Mr. Kennion became Collector of the Customs, 1 that 
he might enjoy himself the more, the Custom House 
Hours underwent an alteration, and instead of 2 Hours 
allowed from 12 to 2, the usual time allowed for 
Dinner, the House was kept open and Business 
transacted until 3 o'clock when publick Business 
closed for the day. This brought the new Hours 
of regulation in Business, and those who had Business 
to transact now seldom sit down until after 3 o'clock 
the general dining Hour is now got from 3 to 5, 
some people go later." 

From the minute-book of "The Unanimous 
Society " a Liverpool club who dined regularly 
together we find that in 1769 the hour was 2, 
2.30 in 1775, and 3 in 1777. 

Agreeably to this we find the bankers con- 

in i 7 ta. 


forming to the new state of things,' and in June 
1784 they issued the following circular: 

" Messrs. Wm. Clarke & Sons, Arthur Heywood, 
Son, & Co., and Charles Caldwell & Co. acquaint their 
friends and the public that after the I2th inst. the hours 
for transacting public business at their respective banks 
will be from nine to three o'clock, and on Thursdays 
from nine to one as usual." 

The reason for the shorter hours on Thursday 
was that that was the blank post-day to London, 
and hence the business community took its half- 
holiday on that day. By 1790 the mail service 
to London had been so accelerated that Friday 
had become the short day. 

With reference to the closing of the banks 
between one and three, it is well to recall 
the fact that the employees probably all lived 
within easy distance of their work. The 
population was small; in 1760 it was only 
25,787, and by 1801 it had increased to only 

Bank holidays as such were not, but the 
number of public holidays was large. In process 
of time these, through the influence of the 
Gradgrinds of commerce, became beautifully less, 
until "St. Lubbock smiled, and all the world was 
gay." As a matter of interest, a list of the public 
holidays in 1 8 1 1 , extracted from Maberly Phillips' 


" History of Banks in the North of England," is 
subjoined : 

Jan. i. New Year's Day. May 29. Restoration of 

1 8. Qucen'sBirthday. Charles II. 

30. King Charles' June 3. Whit Monday. 
Martyrdom. 4. Whit Tuesday. 

Feb. 27. Ash Wednesday. Oct. 25. King's Accession. 

Apr. 12. Good Friday. I Nov. 5. Gunpowder Plot. 

15. Easter Monday. Dec. 25. Christmas Day. 

1 6. Easter Tuesday. 26. St. Stephen's Day. 
May 23. Holy Thursday. 27. St. John's Day. 

With the necessary alteration of date in the 
case of the " Movable Feasts," this list will stand 
good for the period we are considering, say, 1760 
to 1820. 

The currency of bills varied greatly. Reference 
has been made earlier to the bankers 1 inland drafts 
at one or two months' date. Owing to the un- 
certain length of the sailing-ship voyages, and 
the perils of privateers and pirates, the time 
required for the realisation of the produce varied 
greatly. Hence credit was elastic. Bills at the 
following terms were known at this period : 90 
days' sight, 3, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 24, 30, 36, 
and 42 months' date. For the ordinary course 
of business these would be drawn against produce. 
Hence it is not so surprising, as it would seem 
at first blush, that during the parlous times of 


1809-16 frequent sales by public auction are 
made of bills, of which the drawer or the 
acceptor or the endorser was insolvent. Some- 
times both drawer and acceptor, and occasionally 
drawer, acceptor, and endorser, were all insolvent. 
Yet being based on produce there was a certain 
value attaching to this paper, and a shrewd specu- 
lator, possessed of some ready money, might well 
make a good profit out of the necessities of the 
situation. The practice of drawing bills for 
sums including halfpence was current. An item 
in the parish accounts for 1794 reads, "Estate of 
C.Caldwell& Co., returned bills 879, 155. 5jd." 
From 1793 to the resumption of cash pay- 
ments in 1825-6 the currency of the country 
was in an unsatisfactory condition. Large 
amounts of coin had from time to time been 
issued by the Mint, but the foreign drain for 
payment to troops, for subsidies to allies, and for 
the purchase of corn, owing to the failure of 
harvest, rapidly denuded the country of all full- 
weight gold. The coins in use were the guinea, 
half, third, and quarter guinea, with silver crown, 
half-crown, shilling, and sixpence. Copper half- 
pence had been in use from about 1670-80, but 
the copper penny first saw light in 1797, the 
weight being one ounce. That huge cart-wheel 
of a coin, the copper twopence, weighing two 
ounces, was put into circulation in that year, 



and in that year only. On 1st July 1817 the 
sovereign and half-sovereign were brought out, 
entirely supplanting all other gold coins. 

In aid of the currency the Bank of England in 
1804 issued a large number of Spanish dollars, 
then in their possession, with a small head of 
George the Third overstamped on that of Ferdi- 
nand of Spain ; whereupon a bitter wit of the 
period wrote : 

" The Bank to make its Spanish dollars pass 
Stamped the head of a fool on the head of an ass." 

They were issued at 55. 6d. each, and were in 
circulation for many years. The Bank fixed the 
date of their redemption at 1st November 1816, 
but extended this to February and again to May 
1817. After this they agreed to accept all others 
tendered at 55. each. The Bank also issued silver 
tokens of 35. and is. 6d. each. 

Prior to 1759 no Bank of England notes were 
issued under /2O. In that year 10 notes were 
issued, and were followed in 1793 by $ notes. 
In 1797, when the Bank Restriction Act was 
passed, enabling the Bank of England to dispense 
with its obligation to pay coin for its notes on 
demand, the addition of i and 1 notes was 
made to the currency. 

The inflated issue of non-convertible notes pro- 
duced in the first place a large amount of hoard- 


ing of gold coin. In many cases it was found, 
when wealthy men died, that they had large 
stores of hoarded guineas. The next result was 
an appreciation of gold and a depreciation of the 
paper currency. A Bullion Committee sat in 
1810 to consider the question, and in May 1811 
Parliament fatuously passed a resolution declaring 
a. l note and one shilling equal to one guinea, 
whereas it was notorious that in the outside 
market the value of the guinea was 253. It is 
well to record here the discount on Bank of 
England notes during this period : 

In 1802 from / J to 8J discount. 
From 1803-9 ,2 13 2 
1810 13 9 6 

1812 20 15 o 

1813 23 o o 

1814 25 o o 

Through the bankruptcies of 1815 and 1816, 
brought on by the heavy reduction of inflated 
prices, caused by the pernicious system of cur- 
rency, the Bank of England note was raised in 
value until in October 1 8 1 6 the discount was 
only i t 8s. 6d. per cent. But this was attained 
at the sole expense of the public. 

Banking law was naturally in a very immature 
stage. Many and costly have been the decisions, 
and innumerable the enactments, by which the 


law, broadening " slowly down from precedent to 
precedent/' has established banking usages. An 
account of these is not within the scope of this 
book. But an instance or two arising out of 
early transactions will not be out of place. In 
1788 Livesey, Hargreave, Anstie, Smith, & Hill 
failed. They were merchants in the Manchester 
business in a very large way, so large, in fact, that 
public meetings of merchants took place in 
Manchester and Liverpool for the purpose of 
maintaining the credit of certain of their paper, 
lest public credit might unduly suffer. Although 
men of large estates, they had traded beyond their 
means, and to supplement the latter had estab- 
lished " drawing posts," and thereby had put a 
deal of fictitious paper into circulation. One of 
the points that had to be decided was the status 
of these bills drawn in favour of fictitious payees 
and negotiated through third persons. 

Further the Usury Acts were in force, and the 
same bankruptcy gave rise to the question whether 
the bankers' charge of \ per cent, commission for 
discounting bills, in addition to the current rate 
of interest, did not bring the charge under the 
Usury Acts. This was decided by Lord Kenyon 
and a jury in the negative. 

From the detailed accounts of the various 
bankers it will be seen that a considerable propor- 
tion of them interested themselves in the affairs 


of the town. The rise of the joint-stock banks 
withdrew this class of man from the public ser- 
vice. On the Reformed Town Council of 1835 
only one banker, Samuel Hope, was elected. 

During the recurring public distresses which 
arose during the Napoleonic wars the old bankers 
were regularly generous. They recognised their 
public position, and gave accordingly ; to the chari- 
ties of the town they were liberal, and took pro- 
minent part in the government of their activities. 

The various news-rooms had their strong 
support, as had also the New Exchange buildings. 
The Liverpool Gas Company had for some years 
bankers as its directors. But in one case they 
failed, and failed unanimously, to look broadly 
into the future. When, in 1827, a motion was 
brought forward to enable the Town Council to 
erect a public building on the site of the Old 
Infirmary Gardens, in the minority of seven were 
found all the bankers, Henry Moss, Samuel 
Thompson, and Richard Leyland. Had their 
views prevailed, we should have had no St. 
George's Hall. 

It is noticeable that from the latter part of the 
eighteenth and the commencement of the nine- 
teenth century begins locally the custom of using 
surnames, generally the maiden name of the 
mother, as part of the fore-names given to the 
offspring. Before this time the ordinary simple 



in BANKERS' DRi:SS 47 

'* Christian " names were used. Taking only 
those who have been, or are, connected with 
banking, we find numerous examples. 

John Gladstone on 29th April 1 800 married 
Miss Robertson. One of his sons was Robertson 

Samuel Sandbach on ifth September 1802 
married Miss Eliza Robertson, daughter of Rev. 
Dr. Robertson of Kiltcarn. To-day we have 
Gilbert Robertson Sandbach. 

On 24th March 1806 Hugh Jones married 
Elizabeth Heywood. There exists a large family 
of Heywood Joneses. 

On 9th October 1806 James Wood married 
Miss Marke ; hence J. Marke Wood. 

On ist September 1820 George Holt married 
Emma Burning. One of Liverpool's latest 
honorary freemen is Robert Durning Holt. 

The dress of the banker of the period, which 
was equally that of the merchant and others of 
the upper and middle classes, was vastly different 
from the dress of to-day. Brooke (" Ancient 
Liverpool," p. 257) gives a full account of this : 

" They then commonly wore coats cut much in the 
form of court dress-coats, often with stand-up collars, 
and usually with gilt, silvered, twisted, or basket buttons ; 
waistcoats of very great length, of the kind called flap 
waistcoats, the flaps being large, and containing pockets 
with a small cover or flap over each pocket, and often 


with ornamented basket buttons ; short breeches, with 
buckles of gold, silver, or false stones, at the knees, and 
large buckles of gold or silver, or gilt or plated to 
resemble those metals, in their shoes. The coat, waist- 
coat, and breeches were often all of one colour, fre- 
quently of a light or snuffcolour. Ruffles at the wrist, and 
white stocks for the throat were almost invariably worn. 
Cocked hats were commonly used ; the kind of cocked 
hat then in fashion came to a point or peak in front, and 
the raised part of the back was higher than the sides. 
. . . The young men, and some of the middle-aged 
men, wore their hair dressed with curls on each side of 
the face, called cannon curls, and with queues behind, 
and occasionally thick short queues called clubs. Wigs 
of various descriptions, such as tie wigs, cauliflower 
wigs, brown bob wigs, and bush wigs, with hair 
powder, were also commonly worn by middle-aged and 
elderly persons. . . . The stockings worn by them were 
generally of silk, sometimes plain, and at other times 
ribbed or striped, and in the morning occasionally of 
cotton or woollen yarns. 

Canes and walking-sticks were very generally used, 
with large heads of gold, and sometimes of silver, amber, 
and ebony. 

Boots were rarely used, except the kind called top- 
boots, which were commonly worn by equestrians. 


Vixerunt forfet ante "Arthur Hcyiuooda" 

John VVyke Watch-tool industry Wyke'i Court Academy of Paint- 
ing and Sculpture Dispensary " The Octagonians." 

OF the doubtless numerous merchants who per- 
formed the office of bankers to the rising com- 
mercial community of Liverpool there is little 
record left. There were in the early days no 
newspaper and no directory. Hence since they 
lacked those who could preserve their fame, their 
names have perished. But by good chance one 
name has been preserved, and this by the accident 
of his public notice announcing his withdrawal 
from the banking business. " Mr. John Wyke of 
Liverpool having declined the banking business, 
all persons having any bills drawn on him are 
desired to apply to John Menzies in Williamson 
Square, who is appointed to settle the same, and 
all persons indebted to the said John Wyke for 
bills drawn by him, or on notes, bonds, &c., are 
desired immediately to pay the same to the said 



John Menzies. lyth September 1773." This is 
the sole record we possess of a banker anterior 
to the establishment of those firms whose names 
are recorded in the directories. 

In their several histories, Brooke, Stonehouse, 
and Picton all speak well of John Wyke, but 
the author is grateful that they have left to 
him the pleasure of making this addition to 
our knowledge of him. 

Now what manner of man was John Wyke 
that pleasure should be found in this discovery ? 
Picton shall answer : " A man probably little 
known beyond his immediate sphere, but who 
within that sphere fulfilled all the duties of a 
good citizen, and exercised a beneficial influence 
in his day and generation." 

Born in Prescot, a few miles from Liverpool, 
in 1720, he was brought up in the great industry 
of the place, the manufacture of watch tools and 
movements. He acquired celebrity in his busi- 
ness, and in 1758 opened premises in King Street, 
Liverpool, being the first to introduce watch- 
making to that town. He had before leaving 
Prescot bought land, and had a house in Dale 
Street, Liverpool, immediately opposite the end 
of Crosshall Street, and in 1764-5 the property 
was rebuilt. Here he constructed Wyke's Court, 
which was laid out for his residence, coach-house, 
stables, garden, manufactory, warehouse, and 






various other buildings, ail disposed about a large 
rectangular courtyard. The house lay to the 
north, next the garden, which stretched towards 
Tithcbarn Street. The entrance to the whole 
was on the south-west side, under an archway 
from Dale Street. Here John Wyke conducted 
his business as a watch and clock and watch-tool 
manufacturer. Here also would be conducted 
his banking business. 

When the Royal Academy was established in 
1768 some of the Liverpool artists and amateurs 
met together, and in the following year formed 
a society upon similar lines. Among these ap- 
pears the name of John Wyke. The society was 
not very successful, but it paved the way for the 
various exhibitions which have fostered the art 
feeling in Liverpool, and which have their cul- 
mination in the Walker Art Gallery. The 
rooms taken by the society were in [North] 
John Street, in a house which was then the home 
of the Liverpool Library, now located at the 
Lyceum, Bold Street. 

In 1778 John Wyke was prominent amongst 
the gentlemen who established the first dispen- 
sary in Liverpool. This was also in [North] John 
Street, at the northern corner of Princes Street, 
the site of the new buildings of the Royal Insur- 
ance Company. In the report of the first year 
of the dispensary John Wyke's name appears as 


auditor, and for many years he took an active 
interest in the affairs of this valuable charity. It 
is stated by Stonehouse (" Streets of Liverpool ") 
that the origin of the dispensary was due td John 
Wyke. 1 

That magnificent charity, the Blue Coat School, 
also found a friend in him, and in his will, while 
remembering his native town of Prescot, he bene- 
fited the Blue Coat Hospital, the Infirmary and 
Dispensary of Liverpool. 

The watchmaking business was conducted by 
John Wyke alone until about 1774, when he 
took Thomas Green (probably his brother-in- 
law) into partnership. This continued till his 
death, loth September 1787, he being then 
sixty-seven years of age. He was buried at 
Prescot. The funeral procession from Liverpool 
was preceded as far as the foot of Low Hill by 
the boys of the Blue Coat School singing a 
funeral anthem, and on its entrance into Prescot 
the children of the school there met, and preceded 
it to the church, singing on the way. He was 
buried in an altar tomb he had erected to the 
memory of his parents, whose ancestors had 
resided in that parish for nearly three centuries, 

1 In 17X1 the dispensary was removed to a specially erected building 
in Church Street, adjoining the Athenxum. The number of persons 
benefited from 1778 to 1809 was 362,541, being at the average of 
about 12,000 a year. In 1829 the establishment was removed to the 
new dispensary in Vauxhall Road, called the North Dispensary. 

iv JOHN WYKK 5} 

and his epitaph was written by his friend William 

He had married twice. His first wife, Ann, is 
advertised thus on yth August 1760: " Whereas 
Ann, my wife, eloped from me on 27th day of 
April last without my knowledge,'* &c. On 
1 8th August 1768 John Wyke married his 
second wife, Miss Jane Green. The entry in 
the Liverpool Chronicle is noteworthy : ** Mr. 
Wyke, famous for instruments in the watch 
way, to Miss Green." She was appointed 
executrix under his will, dated 9th April 1783, 
which was drawn up by William Roscoe. Pre- 
sumably she was considerably younger than her 
late husband, for, continuing her residence in 
Wyke's Court till 1790, she on 29th July of 
that year married Joseph Jewett of Kingston- 

His partner, Thomas Green, continued the 
business till at least 1811. By 1796, however, 
some of the buildings within the court were 
converted into tenement houses, and quite a little 
colony of watchmaking artisans were collected 

In the sixth volume of the " Proceedings of the 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire'* there 
is an etching of John Wyke's house as it appeared 
in 1819. This was immediately anterior to the 
acquisition of the premises by the Gas Company, 


who here erected gasworks. The site of John 
Wyke's property is now covered by the Central 
Police Offices, the Stipendiary Magistrate's Court, 
and the Fire Brigade Central Offices. 

About 1763 certain seceders from the dissent- 
ing (or practically Unitarian) congregations of 
Key Street and Benn's Gardens built a chapel in 
the open district between Dale Street and White- 
chapel, which, when built on later, became known 
as The Temple. This chapel was called "The 
Octagon," from the shape of the building, which 
had been designed by a watchmaker named Joseph 
Finney. John Wyke, originally of the faith of 
the Church of England, was induced by his friend 
Bentley, well known later on as the friend and 
partner of Josiah Wedgwood, to join this con- 
gregation. The reason for the secession was that 
the members desired a liturgical service. But 
the chapel did not continue long in the new faith, 
as the final sermon was preached in 1776, and 
the building, of which the interior effect is de- 
scribed as " light, cheerful, and agreeable," was 
bought by a minister of the Church of England, 
and under the title of St. Catherine's Church was 
administered in that faith until 1820, when it 
was taken down. Wyke on the break-up of 
the congregation in 1776 reverted to his old 

On 8th January 1852 a paper on the " Dis- 


continued Churches of Liverpool'* was read 
before the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, and the book of liturgy used by the 
Octagon congregation, which was then shown in 
illustration, bore on its title-page the name of 
John Wyke. 



Wm. Clarke & Sons Transition from linen draper to merchant, then 
to banker Partners Liverpool Literary Coterie Inquiry into 
finances of the firm Accession of Wm. Roscoe Particulars of his 
life Chat Moss Lorenzo de Medici Joined by Thos. Leyland 
Election of Wm. Roscoe at M.P. for Liverpool Secession of 
Thomas Leyland Subsidiary businesses Suspension of the firm 
Bankruptcy Sale of books, pictures, &c., of Wm. Roscoe and 
John Clarke Sales of landed property Death of Wm. Roscoe 
Roscoe, Clarke, Wardell & Co. Lowry, Roscoe & Wardell 
Fletcher, Roberts, Roscoe & Co. Account of Thomas Fletcher 
Bankruptcy of Fletcher, Roberts, Roscoe & Co. Annulment of 
the bankruptcy of Roscoe, Clarke & Roscoe. 

THE origin of this bank was in the linen trade. 
At the date of the earliest Liverpool directory, 
1766, William Clarke was a linen draper, residing 
over his business premises on the east side of Derby 
Square. It was at the junction of Castle Street 
and the north side of Harrington Street. In 
1769 he is described as "merchant and linen 
draper," and by 1774 he appears as "banker and 
linen draper," and has thus the honour of being 
the first banker of Liverpool recorded as such in 
the local directory. The transition from trades- 
man to merchant, and then the further progres- 



sion to banker, is typical of the bankers of this 
period. In the directory of 1777 appeared for 
the first time u William Clarke & Sons, Bankers," 
the linen business being still in the name of 
William Clarke alone. The sons were William, 
then aged 24, and John, aged 21. In July 1781 
Mrs. Clarke died, and the idea of discontinuing 
the linen business then seemed to arise. The 
parting of the ways was shown by the adver- 
tisement of 2Oth September 1781 of the sale 
of the entire stock of William Clarke's linen, 
drapery, and millinery articles. Thenceforward 
the Clarkes were bankers, the business being con- 
ducted in Harrington Street, just round the 
corner from the old linen warehouse. William 
Clarke about this time purchased a considerable 
quantity of land in Everton, then an unspoiled 
suburb, and built before 1790 a large mansion 
for himself. He also built a villa on Hillside, 
Evcrton, for his mother, and a further house for 
his son William on the east side of Everton 
Terrace. He also, on 9th October 1783, took 
unto himself a second wife, Mrs. Ellen Shaw. 
The other son, John Clarke, by 1790 was living 
at Birch fie Id, Folly Lane (now Islington). A 
year or two earlier he had joined on to his part- 
nership in the bank a coal business, the offices 
of which were at Canal Basin. He, in conjunc- 
tion with William Roscoe, Charles Porter, and 


Wm. German, had acquired and opened out in 
1789 a colliery at Orrell. Clarke dealt ex- 
clusively in Orrell and cannel coal. At this 
period William Roscoe lived in Folly Lane, in a 
house a little south of Mansfield Street. He 
and William Clarke, junior, were intimate friends, 
and formed the leaders of the small band of 
young men who studied classic authors in the 
early morning hours before business. They too, 
with Dr. Currie and Dr. Shepherd, formed "The 
Liverpool Literary Coterie," whose hospitality, 
as an unlicked cub of sixteen, De Quincey en- 
joyed, and on whose memory he, after years 
of debauchery had dulled his moral feelings, 
scattered the venom of ingratitude. When he 
wrote, three of the four whom he maligned were 
dead. Ingratum si dixeris, omnia dixisti. 

William Clarke, junior, was delicate, and had 
to pass the winter of 1789 in Italy. He chose 
Florence as his place of abode, and as at this time 
Roscoe had resolved on writing the life of Lorenzo 
de Medici, the occasion was seized for searching in 
the Laurentian and Ricardi libraries for original 
and interesting matter. The result was beyond 
all expectation, and among other valuable dis- 
coveries were the poems of Lorenzo, which had 
escaped the notice of all previous biographers. 

On 2nd July 1790 William Clarke lost his 
second wife. The firm continued to progress, 

Corner of Dale Street and Castle Street 

1 1 1 1 

i i iiLi 


and although doubtless distressed by the panic 
of 1793, they suffered no serious misfortune. 
They by 1792 had acquired more central premises 
at the corner of Castle Street and Dale Street, the 
front door of the bank facing the Town Hall. 
William Clarke, junior, then took up his resi- 
dence in the bank house. 

On 5th February 1797 William Clarke died, 
aged 73, and the business was continued by the 
two sons. 

On 1 6th June in the following year William 
Clarke, junior, married, at Kendal, Miss Ann 
Pedder of that town, and in April 1799 he was 
blessed with a son. 

In looking into matters, after the death of 
William Clarke, the business of the house was 
found to be involved. The London correspon- 
dents were Esdaile & Co., and Sir Benjamin 
Hammett, one of the partners of that firm, 
came down to Liverpool to investigate. Esdailes 
held about 200,000 of Clarke & Sons' paper. 
William Roscoe was called in in his professional 
capacity as attorney, and Sir Benjamin Hammett 
was so struck by the ability he displayed in 
arranging the affairs of the firm that he proposed 
that he should become a partner with the Clarkes. 
Roscoe repeatedly refused, and was only won 
over to consent upon Hammett threatening to 
put the matter into bankruptcy. Roscoe had, 


by his examination of the affairs, satisfied him- 
self that in ordinary times there were sufficient 
assets to cover all liabilities. Thus the great 
William Roscoe entered the noble army of 

It is needless here to enter otherwise than 
briefly into the particulars of Roscoe's early life, 
as fuller information is readily accessible. 

Born on the 8th March 1753, the only son of 
William and Elizabeth Roscoe, at the " Old 
Bowling-Green House," Martindale's Hill (now 
Mount Pleasant), then kept by his parents, 
William Roscoe had few advantages in early life. 
He left school at the early age of 12, and at 16, 
after a short sojourn in John Gore's bookseller's 
shop, was apprenticed to Mr. John Eyes, an 
attorney. At the conclusion of his articles he 
entered into partnership with Samuel Aspinall 
(or Aspinwall), and continued in this profession, 
first with that gentleman, and afterwards with 
him and Joshua Lace, until September 1792, 
when the partnership terminated. In 1796 
he retired on a well-earned competency. He 
married on 22nd February 1781 Jane, the second 
daughter of William Griffies, linen draper, of 
Castle Street, Liverpool. He resided succes- 
sively in School Lane, Rainford Gardens, Toxteth 
Park, near the Dingle, until in 1793 ne removed 
to Birchfield, Islington, where he had bought 



some land and erected a house. In 1792 he 
associated himself with Thomas Walccficld, a 
sugar refiner of Liverpool, in attempts to reclaim 
Chat Moss and Trafford Moss. The early ex- 
periments seemed to promise so well that they 
formed strong reasons for Roscoe resigning his 
legal profession. He hoped to turn his bent for 
agriculture and horticulture to profitable account, 
but it finally entailed on him a heavy lock-up 
of capital. His magnum opus, " The Life of 
Lorenzo de Medici," appeared in the winter of 
1795. l n ! 799 ne purchased half the estate of 
Allerton, including the Hall, from the repre- 
sentatives of Mrs. Hard man, and took up his 
abode there on i8th March of that year. The 
estate thus purchased was about 153 acres. 

In the following year, as noted above, he was 
induced, through reasons of friendship, to forsake 
his retirement and enter into commercial life. 

The style of the firm now became " Clarkes and 

In 1802 a very considerable addition to the 
strength of the firm was made. They were 
joined by Thomas Leyland, a very wealthy 
merchant, and hard-headed, keen business man, 
and the firm now became " Leyland, Clarkes, and 
Roscoe." Full notice of Thomas Leyland will 
be found under " Leyland & Bullins." 

William Clarke had always been of delicate 


health, and on 2ist October 1805 he died 1 in 
his fifty-second year, at the house of Robert Holt 
Leigh, Esq., M.P., Duke Street, Westminster. 
A close personal friend of William Roscoe from 
early youth, they were bound by ties not only of 
affection, but of congenial literary tastes. Clarke, 
although of a retiring disposition, had genuine 
talent and extensive learning. The mansion that 
William Clarke the elder had built at Everton, 
and which latterly had been tenanted by his son, 
now deceased, was sold early in 1806, and became 
the property of Nicholas Waterhouse. 

In November 1806 a parliamentary election 
took place, and the friends of liberty, civil and 
religious, nominated William Roscoe as one of 
the candidates, and triumphantly placed him at 
the head of the poll. The defeated candidate, 
General Banastre Tarleton, wrote to the press, 
boldly stating, "The wealth of my opponents has 
been the cause of my discomfiture, and corruption 
the means of their success." 

Under date 3ist December 1806 appeared the 
following circular : 

"The partnership heretofore carried on in Liverpool 
by the undersigned Thomas Leyland, John Clarke, and 
William Roscoe, all of that place, bankers, under the 

1 His wife survived him till 8th December 1831, when she died at 
her residence, Castle End, Gloucester. 


firm of Lcyland, Clarke, & Roscoc, is this day, by 
mutual consent, dissolved. 

(Signed) THOS. LEY LAND. 


WM. Roscoi."' 

The firm in 1 807 appears as " Roscoc, Clarke, 
and Roscoc," the latest accession being William 
Stanley Roscoe, eldest son of William Roscoc. 
He resided with his father at Allerton Hall. 

In this year there was another parliamentary 

1 The reasons for this withdrawal by Thomas Lcyland are not at all 
clear. The Life of William Rotcoe, by hit ton, simply mentions the 
matter thus: "Unfortunately, soon after hh election, his partner, 
Thomas Leyland, whose name stood at the head of the firm, and 
whose wealth contributed to its stability, withdrew suddenly from the 

Picton ("Memorials of Liverpool," vol. ii. p. 141, ed. 1875) 
attributed it to Leyland foreseeing financial disaster to the firm. 
This is doubtful. Picton seems to have taken the phrasing from a 
character sketch by " An Old Stager," and to have hastily adduced it 
as a clue to the present position. But it is quite probable that Leyland 
dissociated himself from the firm on account of Roscoe's strong 
support of the movement for the abolition of the slave trade, then 
agitating the country, and which had a successful outcome in Parlia- 
ment early in 1807. Leyland had for years been drawing thousands 
and tens of thousands from the "African" trade, and as the love of 
money was his dearest love, it is not improbable that the postible 
drying-np of one of the great sources of his wealth had something 
to do with the dissolution of the partnership. Further, keen and 
sagacious though Thomas Leyland was, it would require a greater 
foresight than even he had to gauge the storm and stress of the next 
ten years, particularly year* of crises like 1808-9-10-13 and 1815 and 

It is also probable that Leyland preferred to fight for his own hand. 
He had during his three years' connection with the Clarke* acquired a 
knowledge of the mystery of banking, and possibly thought the time 
had arrived for him to commence business on his own account. 


election, and William Roscoe was again nomi- 
nated, but retired before the election. 

Like most of the bankers of their time, the 
Roscoes had subsidiary businesses. It has been 
already mentioned that John Clarke had a 
separate coal business, concerning himself en- 
tirely with Orrell and Wigan coal. The Roscoes 
also embarked in the same business, being im- 
porters of Bagillt coal, having their office at 
Nova Scotia, Liverpool. They also burdened 
themselves with interests in a colliery and smelting 
works at Bagillt, while William Roscoe continued 
to take considerable interest in the Chat Moss 

At the conclusion of the Napoleonic war in 
1816 there was a commercial panic, owing to the 
great fall in prices which the peace produced. 
Their resources being locked up, Roscoe, Clarke, 
and Roscoe had the misfortune to be unable to 
meet their engagements, and notice to that effect 
appeared in the local press on ist February 1816. 
On 3rd February there was a meeting of the 
creditors of the bank. 1 

The account of this meeting, given in Gore's 
Liverpool Advertiser, has a quaint flavour : 

1 Picton ("Memorials," vol. ii. p. 22, ed. 1875) give* the date of 
the suspension as 1818, and he has been followed by some incautious 
writer*. The bank by arrangement lingered on till 1810, when the 
three partners were formally made bankrupt. 


U A meeting of the creditors of Messrs. Rotcor, 
Clarke, & Roscoc was held at the Great Room of 
Lillyman's Hotel on Saturday last, when a statement 
of the concerns of the house was produced by Mr. 
Roscoc, from which it appeared that the debts of the 
bank did not exceed 315,000, for the liquidation of 
which, the means that were shown, afforded not only 
perfect satisfaction to the creditors, but a gratifying 
assurance of a handsome surplus ultimately arising to 
the partners of the house. Mr. Roscoe submitted the 
statement with great feeling, but in a clear, energetic, 
and manly tone. He was received, he was heard, and 
he retired, accompanied with the strongest testimony of 
attachment and respect ; and though he solicited inquiry 
in a very pointed and earnest manner, a single question 
was not put to him. When we consider the occasion, 
nothing, assuredly, could be more gratifying or honour- 
able to all the parties." 

The state of affairs was investigated by a com- 
mittee of seven, and a report was printed and 
laid before the public. It was estimated that, 
after the payment of all debts, there would be 
an eventual surplus to the partners of ,61,144. 
But alas for such roseate views ! After four 
years' struggle to realise the assets, William 
Roscoe and his partners had to become bankrupts. 
The more easily realisable assets were at once put 
on the market for sale. These comprised the 
books, pictures, prints, &c., belonging to William 
Roscoe, and some valuable pictures belonging to 
John Clarke. Roscoe's library realised .5150, 


his prints ^1886, and the pictures ^3239. 
Among the last named were a portrait of Leo X., 
and a head of Christ by Leonardo da Vinci, both 
of which were bought by the eminent agriculturist 
Thomas Coke 1 of Holkham (whose hospitality 
Roscoe had enjoyed in 1814), at a cost of ^500 
and 300 guineas respectively. The sale took place 
on 29th July 1816 and thirteen following days. 2 

The several estates belonging to the partners 
were also advertised for sale. These were : 
Allerton Hall and 153 acres of land, belonging 
to William Roscoe ; Orrell House, with gardens, 

1 Created Earl of Leicester in 1837. 

2 One ventures to reproduce here William Roscoe's sonnet on part- 
ing from his library. It was handed about among his friends in 
manuscript, and appeared in the Liverpool Advertiser 9th September 
1816, and Liverpool Mercury ijth September 1816: 

" As one who destined from his friends to part 

Regrets his loss, yet hopes again erewhile 

To share their converse and enjoy their smile, 
And tempers, as he may, affliction's dart 
Thus, loved associates ! chiefs of elder art ! 

Teachers of wisdom ! who could once beguile 

My tedious hours, and lighten ev'ry toil, 
I now resign you ; nor with fainting heart 

For pass a few short years, or days, or hours, 
And happier seasons may their dawn unfold, 

And all your sacred fellowship restore ; 

When freed from earth, unlimited its powers, 
Mind shall with mind direct communion hold, 

And kindred spirits meet to part no more." 

At the tale of books some of Roscoe's friends bought volumes to the 
value of .600 and wished to present them to him, but he gratefully 
declined. The books were then given to the Liverpool Athenzum, 
where they now form a distinct portion of the library. 


pinery, and conservatories, with about 52 acres 
of land, belonging to John Clarke ; Crook Hall, 
near Wigan, and 49 acres of land, the property 
of John Clarke; Skipton Pastures, about i6J 
acres, on the road from Bolton to Chorlcy; 
Dumplington Farm, about 38 acres, 4 miles from 
Manchester ; Barton Park Farm, 400 acres, about 
7 miles from Manchester ; Barton Grange, and 
about 200 acres of moss ground ; sundry tracts of 
Chat Moss, about 2000 acres ; smelting works at 
Bagillt. There were interests in collieries at Orrell 
and Bagillt ; also a small estate belonging to John 
Clarke, "The Springs," Orrell, and "The Crooke," 
Sherrington, an estate of 6 acres in Ashton. 

John Clarke's pictures were removed from his 
house, Orrell Mount, to be sold in Manchester, 
9th and loth January iSiy. 1 

The landed estates did not sell readily ; indeed, 
many of them were still in hand when, on 
1 8th January 1820, a commission in bankruptcy 
was issued against William Roscoe, John Clarke, 
and William Stanley Roscoe. 

1 In the "Autobiography of Thomas Fletcher " (privately printed), 
Fletcher record* how in 1811 he bought Hilton'* picture of "Lear 
and hi* Daughter*," at Winttanley'* Room*, Liverpool, at the *ale of 
John Clarke'* picture*, for 31 guinea*, it having co*t Clarke I so guinea*. 
Hence all Clarke'* picture* could not have been old at the earlier 
date. Little did Fletcher then imagine that he, then senior partner 
in Fletcher, Yate* & Co. , would in after year* be a partner in the 
firm that tried to re*u*citate Rotcoe & Clarke'* bank, and that at 
their downfall thi> picture would in 1833 again figure in the auction 


The smelting works and the coal mines at 
Bagillt were yet unsold, and were now dealt with 
by the assignees. 

The liquidation of the bank did not deter 
William Stanley Roscoe from matrimony, for 
we find that he, on loth September 1818, at 
Audley, co. Stafford, married Hannah Eliza, 
eldest daughter of James Caldwell of Linley 
Wood, and became resident at Mount Vernon. 
William Roscoe had, after leaving Allerton Hall, 
gone to live in Rake Lane (now Burning Road), 
then for a while resided at 5 St. James's Walk 
(now the site of the destined Liverpool Cathedral), 
and finally, some time before 1823, took a small 
house in Lodge Lane, near the top of Bentley 
Road, now numbered 1 80, and known as Roscoe 
House. Here he, sustained by an annuity which 
his friends in Liverpool had purchased on the 
joint lives of himself and wife, together with 
100 per annum pension which he received as 
** Royal Associate " of the Royal Society of Liter- 
ature, passed the remainder of his years in calm 
literary and botanical pursuits. He died on 3Oth 
June 1831, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. 

John Clarke did not long survive his bankruptcy. 
He died suddenly at Crook Hall, near Wigan, 
one of his estates, on 9th August 1821, aged 65. 

Prior to his death he had, however, the satis- 
faction of seeing all liabilities on his personal 


estate paid in full, with a good surplus for the 
joint estate of the proprietors. The Orrell 
colliery, in which he and Roscoc were interested, 
on later development became a valuable property, 
and materially increased the dividends to the 
creditors of the bank. 

His coal business was for some time carried on 
by Benjamin Frankland as agent for John Clarke, 
but in 1823 tne style of the firm is Clarke & 
Frankland, and as such was in existence for many 
years. A small point in the history of the firm, 
but one indicative of the character of the 
originator, is that during hard winters, when the 
cost of bringing coal to Liverpool viz. by barges 
was considerably increased owing to the frost, 
the price of coal was never raised against the small 
purchaser. Such a one could buy his coal practi- 
cally at the same rates as during those months 
when the canals were free from ice. This policy, 
a subject for political skits at election time, was 
initiated by John Clarke, and continued after his 
death by Clarke & Frankland. 

The author has not been able to ascertain when 
or to whom John Clarke was married. His wife's 
Christian name was Alice, and they had numerous 
children. A daughter was married 22nd October 
1822 to Ambrose Lace. 1 

1 Ambrose Lace was an attorney, in partnerihip with hit father, 
Joihaa Lace. The latter wa Rotcoc'* partner with Samuel Aipinall 


Of the sons, William Dyson Clarke died ist 
September 1825, aged 40, and the fourth son, 
Charles, died 2nd January 1836. 

William Roscoe had a numerous progeny. He 
himself was an only son, and his only sister, Mar- 
garet, married Daniel Daulby of Rydal Mount, 
Westmorland, and died his widow ist May 1827, 
aged 72. After him Daulby Street is named. 

Of Roscoe's children, the eldest, William Stan- 
ley Roscoe, has full separate reference. 

Edward, the second son, was an iron merchant, 
residing in Toxteth Park. His partnership with 
Crawford Logan was dissolved November 1826, 
and the firm then became Roscoe & Wain, but 
by 1829 the title of his firm was Mather, Roscoe, 
and Co. He died at River Bank, Toxteth Park, 
on nth July 1834, in his fiftieth year. His 
wife Margaret died 28th April 1840, aged 53. 

James, the third son, died, aged 41, on 3rd 
April 1829. 

until the dissolution of partnership in September 1792. Joshua Lace 
by 1801 had taken a partner, Thomas Hassall, their business place 
being in Union Court. By 1811 this partnership had ceased, Joshua 
Lace continuing alone. By 1818 the firm had become Lace, Miller, & 
Lace, the new partners being William Spurstow Miller and Ambrose 
Lace. By 1831 the firm had divided, Ambrose Lace forming the new 
firm of Ambrose Lace & Sons, and Miller taking a partner, Lawrence 
Peel, under the style of Miller & Peel. This, many years later, be- 
came Mil'er, Peel, & Hughes, the latest accession being John Hughes, 
Mayor in 1 881-2. The present head of the firm is William Watson 
Rutherford, M.P., Lord Mayor of Liverpool 1902-3, and the style 
of the firm has become " Rutherfords. " 


Richard became a physician (M.D. Edin. 1 826), 
and died on yd October 1864 at Humberton, in 
Leicestershire, aged 71. 

Henry became a barrister, and married, 29th 
October 1831, Maria, second daughter of Thomas 
Fletcher (see Fletcher, 'Roscoe, & Co.). He was 
appointed Judge of the Liverpool Borough Court, 
was the author of several legal works and of the 
Life of his father, and died 23rd March 1836, 
aged 37. His son is the present Sir Henry 
Roscoe, Professor of Chemistry, of Manchester. 

Mary Anne, the eldest daughter, married, 23rd 
November 1825, Thomas Jevons, iron merchant. 
She died I3th November 1845, aged 50 ; and he 
died at Pisa, 8th November 1855, aged 64, and 
was buried in the Protestant Cemetery at Leg- 
horn. Their son, William Stanley Jevons, born 
1st September 1835, was drowned while bathing 
on 1 3th August 1882. His death was a great 
loss to economic science. He published many 
valuable scientific works, and had in view a 
** Treatise on Economics,'* which he intended as 
his magnum of us. But this remained unwritten. 


When the former firm had to meet their credi- 
tors in 1816 it was judged prudent to endeavour 
to conserve the good part of the business. To 
this end they took into partnership William 


Wardell. William Roscoe's note runs : " For the 
purpose of separating this from our former con- 
cern, and of obtaining additional assistance in our 
bank, we are negotiating to take into partnership 
a very respectable young man, who was brought 
up with us." This new firm lasted till 1820, 
when the Roscoes and John Clarke were declared 
bankrupt. The firm then became 


The new principal of the firm was Thomas 
Lowry, who resided and had a brewery in Cunliffe 
Street. They removed from the old premises, 
No. i Castle Street, to 4 Dale Street, nearly 
opposite. Both Lowry and Wardell had official 
connection with the Liverpool Gas Light Co. ; 
in 1821 Wardell was Chairman and Lowry 
Treasurer. 1 The Roscoe was William Stanley 
Roscoe, William Roscoe having definitely 

On nth September 1826 William Wardell 
married, at Grasmere, Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Gregory Crump, attorney, Liverpool, and 
went to reside in Erskine Street. 

By the end of 1827 this partnership termi- 
nated, Lowry and Wardell ceasing to be mem- 

1 In 1810 the Gas Company wai entirely directed by banker*, 
Samuel Hope being Chairman, William Wardell, Deputy-Chairman, 
and Thomas Lowry, Treasurer. 


bers. 1 Warded went to Chester and joined 
Messrs. Dixons* Bank, the title becoming Dixont 
and Warded, and so continued till his death in 
1 864.' Thomas Lowry, now resident in Rupert 
Lane, contented himself with his brewery.* 

Fresh partners and capital had now to be 
brought into the business. Roscoc opened ncgo- 

* One of the clerks of Lowry, ROTO* ft Wirdcll had a rilllani 
banking career. This was James Litter, ton of the R. James Litter. 
Paitor of Lime Street BaptUt Chapel. He w with them from ill j 
to 1815. In the latter year he joined Cunllfle, Brook i, ft Co.. of Man- 
che*ter, with whom he continued until October 1839. He then 
entered the service of the Manchester and Liverpool District Bank, 
and in Jane 1(31 the manager at Liverpool, James Balrd, having 
resigned, he was appointed manager /r* ttm. This appointment wa, 
later on, confirmed, and he remained with them until 1*35, when, oa 
the formation of the Liverpool Union Bank, he was appointed manager 
of that bank. He remained so for forty years, becoming, on hia retire- 
ment, a director of the bank whose career he had managed from its 
commencement, and whose business had become, during that period, a 
magnificent monument to his ability. 

1 W. Wardell's wife, Elizabeth, died at Chester on ijrd March il 35. 
He himself survived till 1410 March 1864. Prom his will, proved at 
Chester i8th April 1864, he appear* to have had no SOBS, mention 
being made only of a daughter married to Arthur Potts of Hoole Hall, 
Chester. The estate was sworn under 80.000. It is to be noted 
that one of his executors was the above James Lister, the manager of 
the Liverpool Union Bank. Messrs. Dinons' bank was bought by 
Parr's Banking Company. 

* On 1 3th September 1830 died Ann, wife of Thomas Lowry. in her 
fifty-third year. The following year, on March 34th, their two 
daughters were married : Elizabeth, the elder, to Thomas Mann, and 
Ann, the younger, to James Stringer. By 1 8 31 Thomas Lowry appears 
to have given up the brewery, and to have joined hia son.ln-Uw as 
merchants, under the style of Lowry, Stringer ft Mann. Bat on 41*1 
February 1833 his son Thomas died in his twenty fourth year, and 
by 1837 he himself retired from business, leaving the mercantile irm * 
Stringer & Mann." They later on etabll*hed steam saw. mills in 
Seel Street. 


tiations with John Roberts, a merchant residing 
in Rake Lane (now Durning Road), with his 
office at 2 Dale Street, and with John Tarleton, 
who had been brought up in the bank. Then 
Thomas Fletcher, whose partnership in the firm 
of Fletcher, Yates, & Co. had just terminated, 
approached William Stanley Roscoe, and eventually 
a new firm blossomed out under the title of 


They took offices at 8 High Street, a few 
doors away from the old premises in Dale 

Thomas Fletcher at this time was sixty years 
old, having been born 22nd June 1767, the eldest 
child of John and Hannah Fletcher. The family 
were originally yeomen, but both John Fletcher 
and his father before him were hatters, largely 
in the export trade, in Castle Street, near Swift's 
Court. Thomas Fletcher was apprenticed in 
his sixteenth year to James France, an extensive 
Jamaica merchant. About the time of the expiry 
of Fletcher's six years' apprenticeship James France 
withdrew from the firm, leaving a large amount 
of capital with them, and his nephew, Thomas 
Hayhurst, became the head of the firm. Fletcher 
became the junior partner, bringing in ^2000, 
which was largely made up of monies borrowed 
from the family property. 


He married at Norwich, on ut October 1795, 
Anne, eldest daughter of Dr. En fie Id. 1 

When James France died, 1795, Thonus Hay- 
hurst, in accordance with the terms of the will, 
assumed the name of France. He also invested, 
under the terms of the will, a considerable 
portion of James France's money in real estate, 
buying Bostock, in Cheshire, where his descend- 
ants reside. In 1801 there was a reconstruction 
of the firm, and Joseph Brooks Yates and John 
Henry Matthews, both of whom had been for 
some time with the firm, were taken into part- 
nership. In this new firm Joseph Brooks Yates 
obtained a quarter share, although just out of his 
apprenticeship. This was due to his father, the 
Rev. John Yates, 2 who had a secret interest in the 
firm. On 8th January 1815 died Thomas France 
(formerly Hayhurst), and on the reconstruction 
of the firm Thomas Fletcher became senior, the 
style now being Fletcher, Yates, & Co. When 
the last partnership with Joseph Brooks Yates 
terminated, 3ist December 1827, the respective 

1 He was the author of the 6rtt history of Liverpool, compiled ttom 
the paper* of George Perry, and published at Warring too 177* 

* Pastor of the Unitarian Chapel in Pandit* Street, now UM ate* of 
the Qoeen't Theatre. He married, la 1779, EUxabtth, ttkt widow ml 
Dr. Bostock, daughter of John A.hton and fitter of Nicholas Aahtoa. 
He wa a speculative parson, and it Is said that he obtained UM MM*?. 
which now put hit son at so early aa age in such a promlveai petition, 
by a fortunate deal in tobacco. Possibly this occurred in 1776, when 
no tobacco entered Liverpool between May and the cad of Decwator. 


amounts of capital in the firm were : J. B. Yates 
three-fifths, and Thomas Fletcher two-fifths. 
Yates now required Fletcher to bring more 
capital into the concern, well knowing this to 
be impossible, and hence Fletcher was practically 
pushed from the firm. At this time his holding 
in the books was ,18,000, but by depreciation of 
shipping this was reduced to i 1,000. 

During his membership of the above firm he 
did good public service. In 1824 he was one of 
the six commercial members who, for the first 
time, were added to the Dock Board. He 
retained his seat six years. The West India 
Association was formed in 1799. In 1803 
Thomas Fletcher was Vice-Chairman, and in 
1806 Chairman of that body. 

Now when the negotiations for the new 
partnerships in the Roscoe Bank came to a head, 
it was found that the supposed capitalist, John 
Roberts, was not to be a member of the firm, but 
in his stead a brother Richard was put forward. 
He introduced ^7500, and Thomas Fletcher a 
similar amount. Nothing was expected from 
either William Stanley Roscoe or John Tarleton. 
Francis Fletcher (son of Thomas), who had been 
with Fletcher, Yates, & Co. for ten years, was to 
be cashier as assistant to Tarleton at a salary of 
^200 a year for seven years, and after that was 
to be admitted to a partnership. There was a 


condition that not more than ,500 should be 
advanced to any one person without the content 
of the majority of the partners, and, on the sug- 
gestion of Thomas Fletcher, Francis Fletcher was 
at once admitted a partner, taking one-fourth of 
his father's share. The business they had was 
worth ,3000 a year if properly conducted. 

But Roberts' capital turned out to be a de- 
lusion. John Roberts had borrowed every shil- 
ling of the ^7500 from Williams & Co. of 
Chester. It was placed to the credit of Richard 
Roberts, but John opened an account at the bank, 
and by degrees drew the whole amount out in 
way of loan to himself, and so repaid the Chester 
Bank their advance. In the words of Thomas 
Fletcher, 4< In short, it was what is commonly 
known as a * fair take-in.' ' 

Roberts and Tarleton drew together, the latter 
marrying, on the i6th July 1830, Jane Ellen, the 
sister of the former. Roscoe had full faith in 
Tarleton, the result being that the three sanc- 
tioned the loan to John Roberts and other heavy 
advances. The bank was soon entangled further 
with John Roberts. He had a slate quarry in Wales, 
and brought his bills on various agents, employed 
to sell the slates, to the bank for discount. 
Further, the Robertses and Tarleton negotiated a 
partnership for another brother, Robert Roberts, 
with Robert Rawlinson, timber merchant, of 


i Sefton Street, who had an account with the 
bank. For this firm also were discounted bills 
drawn against sales of timber into the country, 
many of which were found to come back. 

Matters progressed in this way until, on 23rd 
July 1833, Fletcher, Roscoe, & Co. received a 
letter from their London agents, Jones, Loyd, 
and Co., announcing that they would no longer 
accept Fletcher & Co.'s drafts. The next day 
the bank stopped payment. They held con- 
siderable amounts of Customs and Excise money. 
Writs were at once issued, and the officers of 
the law laid hands on all property belonging to 
the partners, jointly and severally, and satisfied 
their demands. 

After a delay of some weeks, and an investiga- 
tion of affairs, it was resolved to go into bank- 
ruptcy, and a fiat was issued on I3th September 
1833 against Thomas Fletcher, William Stanley 
Roscoe, Richard Roberts, John Tarleton, and 
Francis Fletcher, trading under the firm of 
Fletcher, Roscoe, Roberts, & Co. 

In addition to the Roberts' entanglement the 
bank had contracted bad debts to a considerable 
amount, but the chief causes of the catastrophe 
were the accounts of John Roberts, and Rawlin- 
son & Roberts. The total amount of the 
liabilities was 30,000, and the concern only 
realised 55. in the . 


When, in July, Jones, Loyd, & Co. stopped 
the account, Fletcher, Roscoe, & Co. had with 
them a cash advance of 10,000 amply secured 
by bills. When all these came to maturity, 
Jones, Loyd, & Co. had to refund 5000 to the 
receiver of the estate, Harmood Banner. Among 
Thomas Fletcher's assets were one-fourth interest 
in a mortgage for 5636, 73. lod. on a coffee 
plantation called Friendship Hall, Portland, 
Jamaica, with seventy slaves thereon, and one- 
fourth of a mortgage for 16,000 on the moiety 
of a sugar estate, called Fellowship Hall, St. 
Mary's, Jamaica, and of the fifty slaves on the 

Thomas Fletcher received his bankruptcy cer- 
tificate on 2nd September 1834, Francis Fletcher 
on 3rd October 1834, but that of William Stanley 
Roscoe was delayed till 8th January 1836. 

Thomas Fletcher's friends, both in and out of 
the family, rallied round him, and subscribed a 
sum of 2000, which was placed in trust. He 
retired to a cottage at Gateacre, where he died 
in 1850. His wife Anna, born 3rd September 
1770, died 5th December 1836, in her sixty- 
seventh year. 

Their son Francis, born I5th November 1799, 
married, 27th October 1831, Marriott, youngest 
daughter of John Martineau of Stamford Hill, 
London. After the break-up of the bank he 


went to reside with his father-in-law, and later 
obtained a place in the Poor Law Commissioner's 

Maria, second daughter of Thomas Fletcher, 
was married to Henry Roscoe 29th October 
1831, and was the mother of the present Sir 
Henry Roscoe of Manchester. 

The third daughter, Emily, was married to 
Charles Booth on 2Oth August 1829; and the 
fourth, Caroline, to Charles Crompton on 2Oth 
March 1832. 

Of the Robertses all trace is lost, but their 
brother-in-law, John Tarleton, became the manager 
at Cork of the Agricultural and Commercial 
Bank of Ireland. 

William Stanley Roscoe, during the winding- 
up of the bank, published in 1834 a book of 
" Poems," and possibly this, his second bank- 
ruptcy, had a little to do with the following 
sonnet : 


" Again thou reignest in thy golden hall, 

Rejoicing in thy sway, fair queen of night ! 
The ruddy reapers hail thee with delight, 
Theirs is the harvest, theirs the joyous call 
For tasks well ended ere the season's fall. 

Sweet orb, thou smilest from thy starry height, 
But whilst on them thy beams are shedding bright, 
To me thou com'st o'ershadow'd with a pall : 


To me alone the year hath fruitless flown, 

Earth hath fulfill'd her trust through all her land*, 

The good man gathereth where he hath town, 
And the great master in his vineyard stands } 

But I, as if my task were all unknown, 

Come to his gates, alas, with empty hands." 

He was appointed Sergeant of Mace to the 
Liverpool Corporation, a position which, under 
the Reformed Municipality, carried a salary of 
^35 I* 1 " annum. He died 3ist October 1843, 
aged 6 1. His wife survived him till 1510 
February 1854, being then aged 68. Their 
son, William Caldwell Roscoe, writer of some 
promising verse, was born 2oth September 1 823, 
and died 3Oth July 1859. 

Whatever dire results to the peace and fortune 
of William Roscoe were brought about by his 
endeavour to rescue the firm of Clarices from 
their embarrassments at the close of the eighteenth 
century, their descendants later on were loyal to 
him, and, so far as lay in their power, endea- 
voured to remove the stigma of bankruptcy from 
his honoured name. The Clarkes in the course 
of time became possessed of means, of which they 
made commendable use in providing a substantial 
further dividend (eight had already been paid) 
on the liabilities of the old banking firm of 
Roscoe, Clarke, & Roscoe. The creditors there- 
upon unanimously consented to an annulment of 


the bankruptcy. When De Quincey in 1837 
wrote " Mr. Roscoe is dead, and has found time 
to be half forgotten," he did not reckon on the 
kindly human feeling, quite unknown to him, 
which William Roscoe had inspired in his friends. 
The late Joseph Mayer, an artist to the finger- 
tips, repeatedly pointed out the value of William 
Roscoe's influence, and the citizens of Liverpool 
of to-day have recognised this by associating his 
name with the Chair of Architecture and Applied 
Art founded in 1881 in the Victoria University, 
now the University of Liverpool. 

Recurring to the annulment of bankruptcy, we 
find that on 2nd and 3Oth November and 3rd 
December 1843 meetings of the creditors in the 
bank were held before Mr. Commissioner Phillips 
for the purpose of their voting upon the accept- 
ance of a composition offered by the family of 
the late John Clarke in order to a final examina- 
tion and supersedeas of the bankruptcy. The 
creditors at the three meetings unanimously voted 
acceptance. The debts proved amounted to 
^204,000, and creditors were 578 in number. 
The Commissioner, on careful consideration of 
all the facts, found that the statutory requisi- 
tions, sees. 133 and 134, 6 George IV., and 
the order of Lord Eldon of 27th June 1826, had 
been strictly complied with. It therefore became 
his duty to transmit the proceedings to the Court 


of Review for its sanction. He hoped, however, 
it would not be out of place if he expressed the 
pleasure with which he performed this duty. 
The name of Roscoe was inseparably connected 
with that of Liverpool, the scene of his nativity. 
Most happy was he therefore that, in strict 
accordance with his duty, an act should have 
become his, the more gratifying to himself, be- 
cause grateful to a town which derived a noble 
distinction from this great man's memory. 

What gives cause for surprise is that Pic ton, 
who surely must have known well how the influ- 
ence of William Roscoe extended far beyond his 
day and generation, has made no mention of this 
graceful and grateful act of expiation. 



Charles Caldwell & Co. Partners War of the French Revolution 
Bankruptcy of the firm Great fall in Consols and cotton Thomas 
Smyth's sons Renewal of the commission of bankruptcy in 1832. 

THE first mention of this firm is in the appendix 
to the directory of 1774. The partners were 
Thomas Smyth and Charles Caldwell. Thomas 
Smyth was a merchant whose place of business 
and residence were in Paradise Street, the bank 
being carried on in an adjoining building. At 
this date Thomas Smyth had made himself a 
name as a successful merchant. This year, and 
for many successive years, his name appears as 
elected to the Chamber of Commerce. He was 
selected as a member of the Common Council of 
Liverpool on 3rd April 1782, was elected bailiff 
in October of the same year, and became Mayor 
in 1789. His country house was Fairview, Tox- 
teth Park, beautifully situated on the crest of the 
hill, where now runs High Park Street. 

Charles Caldwell was a merchant who, accord- 
ing to the Poll Book of 1761, lived in Lord 
Street, but by 1774 was resident in the pleasant 


country district of Bcvington Bush (alas, how 
changed!), and by 1781 had removed to St. 
James's Street. I believe, but have no direct evi- 
dence, that he was a partner in Oldham, Caldwcll, 
and Co., whose transactions were principally in 
sugar. He figured largely in Liverpool society, 
and acted occasionally, in conjunction with our 
best local gentry, as steward for the races at 
Crosby. The banking Arm came directly into 
evidence in this year, 1774, for they were 
appointed in the Gazette of 3Oth July one of 
the receivcri of light gold, for which proper- 
weight coins were issued in return. 

Matters appear to have gone smoothly with 
the firm, Thomas Smyth being regarded as one 
of the principal merchants of the town, until the 
outbreak of the war with France in 1793. Their 
London agents were Burton, Forbes, & Gregory. 
This firm, under the title of Forbes & Gregory, 
of Aldermanbury, London, was gazetted on I9th 
March, and that of Charles Caldwell & Co. fol- 
lowed on 3Oth March. From the Gazette notice 
of the latter failure it would appear that the 
London agents had more than an agent's interest 
in the firm, that, in fact, they were partners. 

Business had been booming for some years past 
in Liverpool ; shipping and cotton especially had 
increased their volume, and with this increase 
came steadily rising prices. The outbreak of 


war caused a rapid fall. In cotton alone the drop 
was from 6d. to yd. per Ib. Consols dropped 
to yo, the highest point of the preceding year 
having been 97. The shipping of Liverpool 
had increased largely. The average annual 
tonnage for the seven years ending 1786 was 
151,347; for the next seven years the average 
was 260,380 tons. The importation of cotton 
was on a rapidly increasing scale. For 1790 the 
imports into Liverpool were 9,608,741 pounds; 
for 1791, 12,198,805 pounds; and for 1792, 
14,064,573 pounds. There was thus a consider- 
able accumulation of stocks. Charles Caldwell 
and Co. and several of their clients 1 held large 
quantities of cotton, and hence suffered badly 
from the enormous drop in the market value 
of the staple. The assignees of Charles Caldwell 
and Co. were Richard Walker, John Bolton, and 
Thomas Leyland, 2 and they set to work at once 

1 Among the clients of C. Caldwell & Co. was the firm of Browne, 
Brown, & Co., the senior of whom was the father of Felicia Dorothea 
Browne, afterwards Mrs. Hemans. Browne & Brown were extensire 
holders of cotton, and came to grief. The assets of the firm, and the 
furniture and residences of the partners, were sold by auction. At the 
very time the Brownes were removing their remaining furniture from 
their house in Duke Street the future Mrs. Hemans was born, and 
her infelicitous arrival was a source of inconvenience to the incoming 
owner, Cornelius Bourne. 

* The three assignees were perhaps the wealthiest men in Liver- 
pool. For Richard Walker, see under Gregson & Co. ; for John 
Bolton, under Staniforth & Co. ; and or Thomas Leyland, under 
Leyland & Bull ins. 


to realise the assets. They ordered the public 
sale of the stocks of Jamaica sugar, London re- 
fined sugar, West India cotton and Pcrnambuco 
cotton. They also on nth June sold the furni- 
ture, &c, of Thomas Smyth's house, Fairview. 
There were prints, a large amount of plate, 
and " the finest wines, brandy, and rum, perhaps, 
in the country." On the same date were sold 
the contents of the Paradise Street premises. On 
24th June was sold the furniture of Charles 
Caldwell, at his house in St. James's Street. 

There was a great deal of litigation about 
the estate, including one suit as to whether the 
proceeds of the realisation should be banked 
with the Bank of England or with a private 
bank. But there was no attempt to resume 

Charles Caldwell for a while resided in St. 
Anne's Street, but some time before 1803 went 
to reside at 7 Bold Street, where he died loth 
January 1814, aged 75. 

Thomas Smyth does not appear to have re- 
mained in Liverpool after the ruin of his busi- 
ness, although his name appears in the list of 
Aldermen up to 1 8 1 1 . He died at The Fence, 
Macclcsficld, on I2th July 1824, in the eighty- 
seventh year of his age. 

His son, William Smyth, born in Liverpool in 
1765, went to Eton and Cambridge, where he 


graduated eighth Wrangler, was elected a Fellow 
of his College, Peterhouse, proceeding to M.A. 
in 1790. The failure of the bank in 1793 
caused him to look out for employment, and 
he became tutor to Richard Brinsley Sheridan's 
elder son, Thomas. He found the general diffi- 
culty of extracting any money from Sheridan, 
and he records that on one occasion when taking 
his pupil to London, instead of coin for defray- 
ing their expenses, they were given orders on 
Drury Lane. Later he obtained a tutorship at 
Peterhouse, and in 1807 was appointed Regius 
Professor of Modern History at Cambridge, 
which office he retained till his death. On the 
death of his father in 1824 he inherited real 
property, and on that account, under the then 
rules of the College, his Fellowship was declared 
vacant. He died unmarried, 24th June 1849, 
at Norwich, and was buried in the Cathedral, 
a stained-glass window to his memory being 
erected over the grave. 

There is now in the hall of Peterhouse a por-r 
trait of William Smyth, presented by his brother, 
the Rev. Thomas Smyth (1778-1854), Fellow of 
Oriel College, Oxford. 

The above particulars of the sons are taken 
from the " Dictionary of National Biography." 

A third brother was Edward, who lived at The 
Fence, Macclesfield. 


Mr. Earwaker, " East Cheshire," vol. ii. 454, 
London, 1880, says: 

"This township (Hurdsfield) consists almost entirely 
of copyhold estates, held under the manor and forest of 
Macclesficld. . . . The Fence, an old house in this 
township, was in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century in possession of a family named Holland, of 
whom there is frequent mention in the Macclesficld 
and other registers. In 1765 it was the residence of 
Harry Langford, and appears at that time, or shortly 
afterwards, to have been in the possession of the Smyth 
family. In 1804, Thomas Smyth was living there, and 
subsequently, I believe, his son, Edward Smyth, Esq. 
It was for many years the residence of the late Thomas 
B roc klc hurst, Esq., and was purchased by him from 
Colonel Smyth in 1869." 

During the mayoralty of Thomas Smyth his 
daughter was married, 24th May 1790, at Child- 
wall, to John Johnson, of London. 

There was at this period great laxity in ad- 
ministering bankrupt estates. The evil was real, 
and at length reached such a pitch that an Act, 
6th of George IV., entitled " An Act to amend 
the law relating to Bankruptcy," was passed, with 
the intent of expediting the closing of long-open 
accounts, and the consequent distributing of divi- 
dends to much-enduring creditors. Under this 
Act there was a notice of renewed commission of 
bankruptcy, dated ist December 1832, "against 


Charles Caldwell and Thomas Smyth, both of 
Liverpool, and John Forbes and Daniel Gregory, 
of London (carrying on business at Liverpool 
under the name, style, or firm of Charles Cald- 
well & Co.) " poor men, all of them long since 
dead and the commissioners were to meet to 
audit the accounts, and to declare a dividend. A 
later notice kindly stated that it was necessary to 
produce the bills, Probates of Wills, and Letters 
of Administration. Be it noted that this was 
only forty years after the original default. 1 

1 There was even a lengthier interval in recent years between the 
default and a dividend. On 251)1 June 1903 there was a sitting at 
the County Court, Manchester, to declare a dividend on the estate of 
Daintry, Ryle, & Co., bankers, who became bankrupt yth July 1841 
an interval of sixty-two years. Ryle was rather of John C. Ryle, 
first Bishop of Liverpool. 



Arthur Heywood, Soot, & Co. Origin of the Hey woodi Transition 
from merchant* to banker* Open a breach at Manchetter, bat 
soon close it Widening of Cattle Street, and rebuilding of bank 
premitcs Samuel Thompton Building of Brunswick Street 
premises Hngh Jones Transfer of Corporation account i to 
Hey wood's Bank Samuel Henry Thompson His tons, Rev. 
S. A. Thompson- Yates and Henry Yates Thompson Sale of the 
business to the Bank of Liverpool Pedigree of the Hey woods. 

THIS celebrated banking house had a much 
longer lease of life than any other similar firm 
in Liverpool. Launched as a separate concern 
in 1773, it endured as a private bank until 1883, 
when it was purchased by the Bank of Liverpool. 
A compact account of the family origin is 
given by Picton (" Memorials of Liverpool/' 
vol. ii. 17, ed. 1875): 

"The Hey woods come of a sturdy Nonconformist 
stock. The Rev. Oliver Hey wood of Halifax, m divine 
somewhat celebrated in his day, and his brother, 
Nathaniel, Vicar of Ormskirk, 1 were both ejected from 

1 In 1859 John Penberton Heywood placed a new east window in 
the chancel of Ormskirk Church in memory of his ancestor, Nathaniel 



their livings by the Act of Uniformity in 1 662. Nathaniel 
had two sons, one bearing his own name, and the other 
named Richard. Richard emigrated to Drogheda, and 
carried on business as a merchant there. Having no 
children, he invited his nephew, Benjamin, son of 
Nathaniel, then about twelve years old, to reside with 
him as his adopted son. Accordingly he went, and, after 
being initiated by him into the art and mystery of the 
merchant's craft, in due time succeeded to a thriving 
business. He married Anne Graham, the daughter of 
General Arthur Graham of Armagh, and niece to the 
then Mayor of Drogheda, through whom he inherited 
landed estates in Ireland, still in possession of the family. 
He died in 1725, in the thirty-eighth year of his age, 
leaving a large fortune to his family. The widow proved 
herself a very Cornelia to his children, refusing all offers 
of marriage, and devoting herself entirely to their wel- 
fare. The two sons were named Arthur and Benjamin. 
Arthur came to Liverpool in 1731, and served an 
apprenticeship of five years to John Hardman of Allerton 
Hall, elected M.P. for the borough in 1754. Benjamin 
came ten years later, in 1741, and was bound apprentice 
to James Crosby (Mayor in 1753)." 

Arthur Heywood at first had his business 
premises and residence in Lord Street, and is 
described of that address in an advertisement 
in Williamson's Advertiser for 1758. The Poll 
Book of 1761 also gives him as of Lord Street. 
But the earliest directory, 1766, contains the 
entry : " Arthur and Benjamin Heywood, mer- 
chants, Hanover Street." They had built them 


houses side by side (Nos. 58 and 59) in 1774, 
on the east side of Hanover Street, between Seel 
Street and Gradwell Street, and immediately 
behind their property was a tennis court. The 
bank, as such, is not mentioned in the directory 
of 1774, but doubtless various traders and private 
persons had, as was. the custom in those days, 
entrusted their accumulations to the responsible 
merchants, and the time was now ripe for the 
emergence of the bank from the double part of 
merchant and financial agent. This change was 
brought prominently before the public by the 
appointment, in a supplement dated 1st July 
1774 to the Royal Proclamation of 24th June 
1774, of A. and B. Heywood as the persons in 
Liverpool authorised to receive the light gold 
then in circulation, and to exchange for it gold 
of full weight. It is a matter to be noted that 
the various proclamations, which named repre- 
sentative firms in all parts of the kingdom, in no 
case describe them as bankers. That distinctive 
appellation is reserved for the Bank of England. 

Needless to say, this singling out of Messrs. 
Heywood perturbed others in the town, who 
rightly considered that they had some claim to 
be considered. Hence C. Caldwell & Co., who 
appear as bankers in the appendix of the local 
directory of 1774, intimate that they are also 
appointed, as notified in the Gazelle of joth July, 


receivers of the gold coin. Similarly, Samuel 
Warren, goldsmith, 1 1 Castle Street, intimates 
that he also has been appointed a receiver. It is 
interesting to observe that Heywoods, although 
they are not in any official list of bankers, yet 
date their public circular from " Bank, Liver- 
pool," giving no other address, although the 
place is given in the body of the notice : 

"BANK, LIVERPOOL, iith July 1774. 

" His Majesty having been pleased to appoint US for 
this place to receive the diminished Gold Coin of the 
Realm, and to exchange the same, agreeable to His 
Royal Proclamation of I5th June last . . . We do 
hereby give notice that attendance will be given for that 
Purpose at our Office, No. 59 Hanover Street, from and 
after the I5th July to the 3ist August next (inclusive) 
between the Hours of Ten O'clock in the Morning and 
One in the Afternoon, and betwixt Four and Six in the 
Afternoon every Wednesday and Saturday, for People 
from the Country, and Towns People possessed of small 
Sums, and every Monday, Tuesday, and Friday for the 
other Inhabitants. 


Having thus introduced Arthur Heywood on 
his public career, it is desirable that we should 
hark back to consider him in his private capacity. 
We also notice the parting of the brothers, both 
of them quitting the career of merchants for that 
of bankers. 


n A. HEYWOOD, SON, b CO. 9f 

In 1739, being then twenty-two yean of age, 
Arthur Heywood married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Samuel Ogden of Mossley Hill, Liverpool, and 
Penelope, his wife, daughter and co-heiress of 
John Pemberton, a burgess of Chester, who had 
amassed a large fortune as a Liverpool merchant. 
John Pemberton had also a daughter Bridget, who 
married Richard Milncs of Wakcfield. They had 
several children, one being named Hannah. 1 

Elizabeth Heywood died 8th February 1748, 
leaving a daughter as the issue of the marriage. 

On 26th April 1750 Arthur Heywood married 
the above-mentioned Hannah Milncs.* 

In 1751 Benjamin Heywood married Phoebe, 
the sister of Arthur's first wife. 

The two brothers were successful in business. 
They had their experience of the African trade, 
dabbled a little in privateering, having their 
Letters of Marque ; were recognised as repre- 
sentative merchants, and as such were elected to 
the Chamber of Commerce. 

The change from merchant to banker in the 
case of Arthur Heywood took place in 1773, he 

1 From another child of Richard and Bridget Milaw 
grandson, Richard Monckcon Milne*, Lord Hoaghton. 

* An adrertiteroent of slth May 1756 indicates part of (he property 
which Richard Milne* came into by marriage with John Pembertoa** 
daughter : " To be Lett a new Large House aad WarehoM* ! 
Fenwick Street, near Dry Bridge, belonging to Mr. R. Mil*** of 
Wakefield. Enquire of Mr. Arthur Heywood." Either (hit. or 
property contiguous to it, became in 179! the site of Heywood'* Bas>a. 


being then fifty-five years of age. When a second 
notice relative to the " diminished gold " appeared 
on nth April 1776, it was stated that operations 
were conducted " at the Bank in Castle Street" also 
at Arthur Heywood's office in Hanover Street. 
A curious feature of this second notice is that 
Heywoods were not content to exchange the 
gold merely at those addresses, but certain speci- 
fied dates were given on which they would visit 
Prescot, Warrington, and Ormskirk for the con- 
venience of the country districts. 

When the bank was established in Castle 
Street, then a narrow street only 1 8 feet wide, 
Richard, the eldest son of Arthur, took up his 
residence on the bank premises, as was the usual 
custom. On 25th May 1781 he married Mary, 
the daughter of William Earle of Redcross Street. 
In 1784 Arthur Heywood, Sons, & Co. opened 
a branch at Manchester under the management 
of Richard Ogden. The latter not proving a 
success, in 1786 Arthur Heywood took over the 
management, but after six months' experience of 
it closed the branch. 

Benjamin Heywood had two sons, Benjamin 
Arthur and Nathaniel, residing with him in 
Hanover Street. Benjamin Arthur was in busi- 
ness in Chorley Street, Liverpool, under the title 
of Parke & Heywood, also in Lancaster as Parke, 
Heywood, & Conway. The latter firm was 





dissolved in May 1785. They dealt in African 
goods, ivory, &c., and had privateers, but their 
staple trade was linen. The senior was Thomas 
Parkc (see Gregson & Co.). 

In 1788 Benjamin Arthur and Nathaniel, 
being then aged thirty-three and twenty-eight 
years respectively, proceeded to Manchester, and, 
with their father as senior, on a6th May com- 
menced business as bankers. They founded a 
great business. 

Some time before 1785 Richard Heywood had 
acquired, and was resident at, Lark Hill, Weft 
Derby, still in possession of descendants of the 
Heywoods, and his place in the bank house was 
taken by Arthur Heywood, junior. 

In 1786 the west side of Castle Street was 
taken down, and the street carried back to its 
present alignment, Brunswick Street being opened 
at the same time. This necessitated the entire 
rebuilding of the bank premises. 

When the mighty financial crash came in 1793 
Heywoods' stood firm, and supported the measures 
taken for the maintenance of credit. 

Shortly afterwards there was an accession to the 
firm of a new member, Samuel Thompson. He had 
been in their employ for some time. In the direc- 
tory for 1 796 he appears in the appendix under the 
head of " Heywood & Thompson, merchants," 
but not till 1800 is he mentioned as banker. 


On nth February 1795 died Arthur Hey- 
wood, the founder of the firm, being then in his 
seventy-ninth year, and on loth August of the 
same year his brother, and long time partner, 
Benjamin, died at Manchester, aged 72. l 

In 1798 the Heywoods began the construction 
of the building which is still associated with 
their name the bank premises in Brunswick 
Street, with dwelling-house attached, having 
entrance from Fenwick Street. 

The date of removal from Castle Street to 
Brunswick Street is approximately given in the 
following advertisement of January 1799 : 

" To be sold all those buildings on the west side of 
Higher Castle Street, now used in part as a bank by 
Messrs. Heywood & Co., and in part as a dwelling-house 
with coach-house behind. Possession may be had in 
May 1800, or sooner if the new bank, building by 
Messrs. Heywoods in Brunswick Street, shall be ready 
for occupation." 2 

On 3rd May 1800 Richard Heywood died, 
aged 49, at his seat at Lark Hill, " a gentleman 
universally respected for his integrity, benevolence, 

i Arthur Heywood's widow, Hannah, survived him till 8th 
September 1806, dying at her then residence, 4 Great George Street, 
at the age of 83. Benjamin's widow, Phoebe, removed to 16 Knight 
Street, where she died Z5th May 1810, aged 84. 

i 2 The building in Castle Street was taken down in 1864 to make 
way for the new building of the Mercantile and Exchange Bank, 
whirh had a short and inglorious career. It is now occupied by the 
Scottish Widows Insurance Company. 


vii HUGH JONES 99 

and goodness of heart." He had no children/ and 
the headship of the bank devolved on his younger 
brother Arthur (II). 

The partner, Samuel Thompson, had in 1800 
his residence at 48 School Lane, but on 131)1 
August 1 80 1 he married Miss Hughes, the 
daughter of John Hughes, Esq., of Chester, 
and took a house in the more fashionable quar- 
ter of Slater Street, where he resided till about 
1806-7, when he removed to Rodney Street. 

The fourth son of Arthur (I) was John 
Pemberton Heywood, a barrister, who resided 
at Wakcficld. Two of his sons, Richard (11) 
and John Pemberton (II), became members of 
the banking firm. 

The second son of Arthur (I) was Benjamin 
(III), who resided at Stanley Hall, Wakcficld. 
He had married Elizabeth, the widow of William 
Serjeantson. Their eldest daughter, Elizabeth, 
married on 24th March 1806, at St. Thomas's 
Church, Liverpool, Hugh Jones. 

Hugh Jones was the youngest son of Thomas 
Jones (1740-99) of The Court, Wrexham, son 
of John Jones, who had married Maria Mar- 
garetta, daughter and co-heir of Sir Thomas 
Longueville, Bart. Thomas Jones was formerly 
Lieutenant in the iO4th foot, and subsequently 

> Hit widow, Mary, died nth December ilji. In her 
year, at her HOUM in St. Michael'*, Tottnh Park. 


Captain of Militia, both of Denbighshire and 
Merionethshire. He had married, first, Jane 
Jones; secondly, Ann Lloyd, and Hugh Jones 
was an offspring of the second marriage. The 
latter was born 2Oth September 1777. His 
eldest brother, Thomas Longueville Jones, took 
by Royal Licence the name of Longueville in 
lieu of that of Jones, and was the progenitor 
of the family of Longuevilles of Oswestry. On 
his marriage, Hugh Jones became a partner in 
Heywoods' Bank, and took up his residence at 
8 Great George Square, but by 1813 he had 
taken a house, No. 61, in the chosen retreat 
of the affluent and dignified, Rodney Street. 

On 24th September 1822 died at his seat, 
Stanley Hall, Wakefield, Benjamin Hey wood, 
aged 70. He was succeeded at Stanley Hall 
by his son Arthur (III), who married, ist 
June 1825, Mary Duroure. He died s.p. in 

On 1 6th December 1833 died in his thirty- 
second year another member of the firm, Richard 
(II), son of John Pemberton Heywood of Wake- 

The year 1835 marks the transference of the 
entire Corporation accounts to Heywoods' Bank, 
thus adding further prestige to the firm. Fuller 
note of the matter is given under Leyland and 
Bullins. The following year saw many events 



which had influence on the proprietorship of the 

On the 9th January, at his house in Aber- 
cromby Square, died Samuel Thompson, 1 in his 
sixty-ninth year. He was succeeded in the 
bank by his son, Samuel Henry Thompson, who 
married, 24th January 1837, Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Joseph Brooks Yates of West Dingle. 

On 28th January 1836, at St. George's Church, 
Liverpool, was married Robertson Gladstone, 
second son of John Gladstone* of Liverpool, 
and Fasque, Kincardineshire, to Mary Ellen, 
third daughter of Hugh Jones, a partner in 
Hcywoods*. In the fulness of time their son, 
Robertson Gladstone, obtained a partnership in 
the bank. 

1 In addition to hii partnership in the bank, Samuel Thompson 
had a tubiidiary business at insurance broker, jointly with William 
Thompson, junior, Jame* Thompson, junior, and John Gunning. 
This partnership was, however, dissolved ji*t December lSt4, and 
Samuel Thompson in 18x5 opemd an insurance office on his own 
account at to Exchange Alley. On 1st November iSt6 he was elected 
a member of the Corporation, and became Bailiff for llaS. His eldest 
daughter was married at St. Michael's Churrh, Liverpool, on 6th 
August 18x9 to Owen Wynne of Sligo, eldest son of William Wynne, 
Esq., of Dublin ; and hit second son, Arthur, was married at the 
Parish Church, Prendergast, on loth September 18)6, to France* 
Catherine, eldest daughter of James Bcllairs, E*q., of The Moaat, 

* It is worthy of note that in Billinge's Lrnrfml A+ntu<T for 1800 
appears a single-line entry, " 29th April, John Gladstone, E*q., to 
Miss Robertson." Two of the sons of that marrUg* were the above 
Robertson Gladstone, and William Ewart Gladstone, of world-wide 


On 2 ist April was married at St. George's 
Church, Liverpool, John Pemberton Hey wood, 
third son of the late John Pemberton Heywood 
of Wakefield, to Anna Maria, second daughter 
of the above Hugh Jones. This marriage be- 
tween close relatives certainly consolidated the 
several interests in the bank. 

On 1 3th September of the same year died 
Arthur Heywood (II), in the eighty-third year of 
his age. 1 

On nth October was married at Ambleside 
Richard Heywood, eldest son of Hugh Jones, to 
Margaret, only daughter of John Harrison, Esq., 
of Ambleside. He appears to have been given a 
partnership in the bank a little earlier than this. 

Taking leave of the bank in 1837, we find the 
existing partners are Hugh Jones, his son Richard 
Heywood Jones, John Pemberton Heywood, and 
Samuel Henry Thompson. 

After the death of Arthur Heywood, Hugh 
Jones succeeded him in the occupancy of Lark 
Hill, West Derby, where Arthur Heywood Jones 

1 There is no mention of his marriage in any official account, but in 
"The Creevey Papers," under date 23rd November 1833, Thomas 
Creevey writes that Arthur Heywood had married what is known in 
current slang as " a woman of no importance." He mentions a kind- 
ness done by Arthur Heywood to a son of the Earl of Sefton, who 
had committed a similar imprudence, and adds, as to Arthur Hey- 
wood's wife, "As she was a remarkably good kind of woman, he may 
think that Berkeley's tit may be the same " (vol. ii. p. z8, edition 



still resides. He died, lyth June 1842, at Con- 
naught Place West, Hyde Park, in his sixty-sixth 
year. 1 

John Pemberton Heywood resided at the bank 
house in Fcnwick Street, but a little later than 
this period had his country residence at Norris 
Green, West Derby. He died s.p. in 1877. 

Samuel Henry Thompson 3 resided with hi* 
father in Abercromby Square, but on his marriage 
he removed to Dingle Cottage, Toxteth, near the 
home of his wife's relatives. In 1847 he pur- 
chased Thingwall Hall, near Liverpool, with 
about 300 acres of park land. He died December 
1892, aged 85. 

The banking business was sold in 1883 to the 

1 In a notice of hit death in the Ln>erp**l Mtmry occur* the follow- 
ing: " It would be difficult to name a tingle benevolent institution 
which has not experienced hit generosity, and will not iulfrr by hi* 
death." He left .500 to the Liverpool Infirmary, and ^500 to the 

1 No account of this bank would be complete without grateful 
reference to the benefaction* which the city of Liverpool ha* received 
from this gentleman'* tons, Rev. Samuel Ashton Thorn p*on-Yate* 
and Henry Yate* Thompson. To the former, who died November 
1903, Liverpool Univenity it indebted for it* magnificently equipped 
medical laboratories. To the latter, whom Liverpool delighted to 
honour in October 1901 by conferring on him the honorary freedom 
of the city, Liverpool owe* it* splendid palm-hou*e in Sefton and 
Stanley Parks, with adequate furniture. In another direction he is 
remarkable as having been the proprietor of the P*U MM (***/, 
during which period James Greenwood and John Morley were MX- 
cessive editor*. He waa also the purchaser of the magnificent Ash- 
burnham collection of manutcripts, and the library of Newnham 
College owes much to his generality. 





_ n 

- 2 H 
ii? "" l 



_ i 











2> a 










j I 



: s 






Bank of Liverpool for .400,000, and is known 
now as the Heywoods' branch of the Bank of 

For convenience of reference, outline pedigrees 
are given on pages 104-105. 



Tumi i ion from merchant* to banker*- Partner* WM of I he frMwh 
Revolution Inspection of bank'* aflalr* Wa. OrvfMM. tom. 
Parke*. ft Clay DiMolution of Utt-aamed ttm GtvfwMM M* 
Clay Satpentioo of the bank Corporation reward* a*4 pwaUfe- 
menti Claim* paid in full. 

THE earliest records of this house commence 
during the period of the Seven Years' War with 
France. Privateering was practised by both 
nations, and Liverpool contributed its quota of 
armed merchantmen. Among others we find, 
in 1756, Messrs. Gregson & Bridge trading with 
the West Indies in an armed vessel, and in the 
following year despatching a frigate of eighteen 
guns. The senior of the above firm of mer- 
chants, and of the subsequent banking firm, was 
William Gregson, son of John Gregson. The 
latter died list July 1758, in the eighty-third 
year of his age, and at that time William Gregson, 
in his fortieth year, was already an eminent mer- 
chant. Like other merchants of the period, he 
did not confine his activities to one line of 
business. In addition to his mercantile (which 


included the African or slave trade), shipowning, 
and privateering pursuits, Mr. Gregson had a 
rope-walk, and was an insurance broker, or under- 
writer, as we should at present term it. The 
style of the mercantile firm was Gregson and 
Bridge, subsequently Gregson, Bridge, & Holme. 
There were two insurance-broking firms with 
which he was identified Gregson, Case, & Co., 
and Gregson, Bridge, & Co. Both these latter 
firms appear to have dissolved partnership in 
1778-9. One circular is as follows: 

" 1st January 1779. 

"The partnership carried on between the subscribers, 
as insurance brokers, under the style or firm of Gregson, 
Bridge, & Co., is this day dissolved by mutual consent. 
Persons owing money are requested to pay their debts to 
Thomas Morland, their clerk, at the office near the 





1 James Bridge was Bailiff in 1765. He died 151!! December 1791. 
His widow, Mary, survived him till 2nd July 1835, being then aged 91. 

2 The above Thomas Earle was probably Thomas Earle, afterwards 
of Spekelands, born 1754, who married his cousin Maria, daughter of 
Thomas Earle of Leghorn, 2oth April 1786, and died gth July 1812. 
Through them the Earle family is continued to the present day. 

3 Thomas Birch was Bailiff in 1771, and Mayor in 1777. He was 
son of Caleb Birch of Whitehaven ; he married Eleanor, daughter 
of Bernard Bushby, and died in 1782. His son Joseph was partner 


We learn from a further circular in 1782 that 
the firm of Gregson, Case, & Co. was dissolved 
about the same time as Gregson, Bridge, & Co. 
This dissolution arose from the bankruptcy of 
Thomas Case, who was also a partner in the 
bankrupt firm of Clayton, Case, & Co. 

William Gregson took an active interest in 
the general affairs of Liverpool, was elected 2nd 
April 1760 a member of the exceedingly " close'* 
Common Council, progressed to Bailiff in the 
same year, and became Mayor in 1762 (not 1769 
as given by Picton). On I7th July 1769 he was 
sworn Justice of the Peace for the county of 
Lancaster. In 1761 William Gregson was resi- 
dent in James Street, but he was one of the 
earliest merchants to reside in the outskirts of the 
town. So early as 1769 we find him occupying 
a house on the east side of the lane leading from 
Newsham House to Breck Lane. This house 
was afterwards tenanted by Christopher Rawdon, 
who in later years was the first Chairman of 
Directors of the Liverpool Commercial Bank. 
But in 1786 William Gregson bought and rebuilt 

with hit father as Liverpool merchants. Born ijth June 1755, he 
married 6th March 1786 Elizabeth Mary, third daughter of Ben- 
jamin Hcywood, was for some time M.P. for Not:ingham, was created 
a baronet joth September llji, and died aind August 1833. Hi* 
son, Sir Thomas Bernard Birch, Bart., born ilth March 1791, was 
M.P. for Liverpool 1847-51. Joseph Birch bought the estate of Red 
Hazlrs, Prescot, from th Case family, for whom see under Moss 
and Co. 


the house at the corner of Folly Lane (now 
Brunswick Road) and Everton Road. This 
house had been formerly tenanted by Dr. Fabius, 
and subsequently by the father of Joseph John- 
son, partner with John Gore in Gore's Advertiser. 
In front of the grounds was a public well, and 
the site is now approximately indicated by the 
hostelry known as " Gregson's Well." 

Just when the banking firm, as such, crystal- 
lised out from the mixture with other businesses 
is not clear. The earliest mention of it in the 
Liverpool directories is in the year 1790, when 
it is given, "William Gregson, Sons, Parke, and 
Morland, bankers, 15-16 Paradise Street," near 
the lower end of College Lane. They do not 
appear in the joint circular of the bankers in June 
1784 (see Chapter III.), but the newspapers of 
1788 and 1789 make references which indicate 
the existence of the bank as a separate institution. 
Hence it is considered that it emerged about the 
time William Gregson entered his new house, say 

The sons in the bank were John and James. 
An elder brother, William, was appointed, 2nd 
August 1780, Town Clerk of Liverpool, on the 
death of Francis Gildart, but died in February 
of the following year on his passage to Lisbon, 
whither he was proceeding for the benefit of his 


The youngest brother, Richard, died 3rd Feb- 
ruary 1786. 

William Gregson also had a daughter, who was 
married 3ist December 1783 to George Case. 1 

At the time of the public appearance of the 
bank, John Gregson was an Alderman of Liver- 
pool, having been elected Bailiff in 1777, and 
Mayor in 1784. He resided in Duke Street, at 
the corner of Suffolk Street, and married, loth 
May 1786, Miss Clay, daughter of the late 
Richard Clay. 

His brother James, following the usual custom 
of the times, resided over the bank, first in 
Paradise Street, and then in Lord Street. When, 
on 1 5th October 1799, he married Miss Rigg, he 
quitted these bachelor rooms, and took up his 
residence at I Duke Street. 

Thomas Parke, another of the partners, was a 
descendant of a family long resident in Liverpool. 
His grandfather was a successful captain in the 
West India trade. He had two sons, Thomas, 
who was in business in Liverpool as an iron- 
monger and anchorsmith, and John, who was a 
merchant in Abchurch Lane, London. Whether 
these two brothers had ventures in common is 

i George Cae was ton of John Cae of Prescot. He became a suc- 
ccuful Liverpool merchant, and was Mayor in 1781. When John 
Gregson died in 1807, George Gate tucceeded him a> Receiver-General 
of Taxes for the County of Lancaster. He died ind November 1836, 
agrd 88, at his residence, Walton Priory. 


not known, but they both figured in the same 
Gazette^ 22nd November 1758. Their mother 
Dorothy, then a widow, was so affected by these 
misfortunes that she immediately took to her 
bed, and died broken-hearted early in December. 
She lived in the present Derby Square, and her 
household goods were sold by auction in January 


It will give some indication of the wide- 
spread interest taken in privateering when it 
is remarked that the managers of and principal 
shareholders in a (then) large vessel of 250 
tons, 1 6 carriage guns, 20 swivels, and 154 men, 
were Thomas Parke, ironmonger, and Stanhope 
Mason, draper. 

Thomas Parke, subsequently banker, was son 
of this Thomas Parke, and appears in our earliest 
directory, 1766, as Thomas Parke & Co., linen mer- 
chants, Covent Garden. By 1769 they had removed 
to Old Church Yard, and later on their business 
was transferred to Chorley Street. He, in common 
with the other Liverpool merchants, at first lived 
over his business premises, but by 1784 he had 
a house in the fashionable Duke Street. He had 
by the regular process of evolution risen from 
trader to shipowner and privateer owner. Mat- 
ters prospered, and about 1781 he had bought 
and occupied Highfield House, West Derby. 
This spacious mansion was formerly the residence 


of the Dowager- Duchess of Atholl, 1 ami had 
about 34 acres of grounds attached. He, in 
the course of time, acquired additional lands, 
so that when the property was offered for sale 
in 1828, after the death of his widow, the sur- 
rounding estate amounted to 1 20 acres. It was 
lavishly kept up, and extensive hot-houses were 

Though a wealthy man, Thomas Parke took 
no active interest in municipal affairs. 

He and his wife Anne, daughter of William 
Preston, had several children. 

The eldest son was Thomas John Parke, equally 
well known in his day as Thomas Parke, jun. 
He entered the banking firm, and will occupy 
our attention hereafter. He married, 22nd 
October 1804, the daughter of John Colquitt, 
Town Clerk of Liverpool. 

The second son was Preston Fryers Parke, 
afterwards Major of ist Regiment of Duke of 

Th. l.U of MM bad bn toU by th jrd Dk, of AlhaU to 
1765. bat IM aad hi* dnceadaau retained the rigbt of appotottof tW 
BUbop tad away of the eWqty. HM rwloVac* M HJfairid pro**** 
ma txcrlUnt ihiof for the Utvrpool ekrgy, wrtral ot vbooi rrerivW 
the bUbopric. Of OM pmnmlo* iaiitbtn ( Uirptii ") talk 
capital Moty. Re*. Claodiv* Crifaa wmt mdmtnttt ol St. AJIM', ad 
bdaf to a rrry ancMtala Mat* of bemlih, wbra Dr. Hii> dM to 
I 7 S 4 be wu appolaud bl.bop by in* DK!MM of AlHoU, wbo tataftn 
that UM SM wooU gain btcoaM vacmat by ta Haw W oa, wbo VM 
thra a minor, woo Id be raady to uke po*naioa; bt eoXrary 
rpctaiioa, ht litcd to pono the Mtbaprk iwraiy-i year* TW 
aa of tb Dacbctt died to UM latarlax 



Lancaster's Own Militia. He died j./>., 2nd 
February 1832, at Ceynsham Bank, Cheltenham. 

Two other sons were John and Ralph, who 
both died s.p. 

The youngest son was James, first of the 
Middle Temple, barrister-at-law, next Baron 
Parke, and subsequently Lord Wensleydale. 

Born 22nd March 1782, he married, 8th April 
1817, Cecilia Arabella Frances Barlow, youngest 
daughter of Samuel Barlow of Middlethorp, near 
York. Having no surviving male successor, Sir 
James Parke was deemed by Lord Palmerston in 
1856 a proper person on whom to confer a 
life peerage. But the House of Lords would 
have none of it, and the outcome was that the 
usual patent had to be substituted for the pro- 
posed one. His title was Baron Wensleydale of 
Walton, in the county of Lancaster. His eldest 
daughter, Cecilia Anne, married, 2ist September 
1841, Sir Matthew White Ridley, 4th Baronet, 
and her son was the first Viscount Ridley, who 
died 28th November 1904. She died 2Oth 
April 1845. Lord Wensleydale died 25th Feb- 
ruary 1868, in the eighty-sixth year of his age. 1 

1 Two brief notices of Baron Parke by a good judge may be given : 
" Baron Parke was a great lawyer, and educated for the law, when the 
cultivation of advocacy and great knowledge of the law were essential 
to success." 

" Baron Parke was one of the shrewdest of men, as any one would 
discover who attempted to deceive him." " Reminiscences of Sir 
Henry Hawkins," 1904. 


During his lifetime his fondness of legal subtleties 
gained for him a suggested epitaph : 

Hie jacct Jacobus Parke, 
Qui leges Anglix in absurdum rcduxit. 

Thomas Parkc had also three daughters. The 
eldest, Hannah, was unmarried, and died 25th 
March 1827. 

The second, Alice, was married, ist August 
1791, at Walton, Liverpool, to Sitwcll Sitwcll, 
son of Francis Sitwell of Renishaw, Derbyshire. 
They had two daughters and a son. The latter, 
George, was born 2Oth April 1797, and his 
mother died the following month. Sitwcll 
Sitwell was created a baronet on 3rd October 

The third, Ann, was married, 2jrd September 
1805, to John Groome Smythe of Worsficld, 
Shropshire, and died his widow, 4th November 

The remaining partner in the firm was Thomas 
Morland. He had been in the employ of 
William Gregson for many years, and had acted 
as liquidator of the various firms in which 
William Gregson had been interested, and 
which in process of time had been dissolved. 
He in 1781 was resident in Hanover Street, 
married on 26th July 1789 Alice, daughter 
of Robert Williamson, and by 1790 resided 


in Seel Street. He came from a Knutsford 

William Gregson, alike from his business con- 
nections as from his municipal position, had great 
influence in the town, and it is not surprising 
to find that the Corporation accounts, yearly 
rapidly increasing in value, were kept with 
Gregson & Co. 

The firm commenced its business in Paradise 
Street, but soon it gravitated nearer to the centre 
of commerce, the Exchange. 

Early in 1792 it occupied premises at No. 13 
Lord Street. It will be convenient here to call 
to remembrance that Lord Street was not the 
broad spacious street we now have. On the con- 
trary, it was a narrow, confined street. Castle 
Street then ran in an unbroken line across the 
present splendid mouth of Lord Street right to" 
Cable Street, and the entrances from Castle Street 
were through Castle Ditch, on the north side 
from Harrington Street, on the south from Cable 

Here Gregson & Co. were when the panic of 
1793 took possession of England. They suffered, 
and on April 15, 1793, they issued the following 
notice : " The creditors of William Gregson, 
Sons, Parke, & Morland are requested to meet at 
the bank on Wednesday next, at ten o'clock, to 
receive the report of Messrs. Walker, Case, and 


Ley land, 1 who have undertaken to inspect their 
affairs, and to adopt such measures as shall be 
sufficiently expedient for the general interest of 
every person concerned." 

Gregsons survived this ordeal, but reconstructed 
the firm. Their circular, dated 25th November 
I 793> is as follows: "The banking business 
heretofore carried on by Messrs. William Greg- 
son, Sons, Parke, & Morland will in future be 
transacted under the firm of William Gregson, 
Sons, Parkes, & Clay." * 

Thomas Morland left the firm, and we find 
him in 1796 living at 3 Slater Street, described 
as ** gentleman." In the directory for 1 800 no 
entry is made of the name. 8 

i They were three of the principal merchants of the town. Richard 
Walker was the ton of Richard Walker, merchant, who in November 
1759 had married the sister of Richard Watt, merchant in Kingston, 
Jamaica. The latter amassed a large fortune, came home on nth 
August 1781, died in 1796, aged 71, leaving half a million sterling 
between his two nephews, Richard Watt and Richard Walker. The 
latter married on nth December 1787 the eldest daughter of Edward 
Wilton, but she died ^yd October 1788, in her twenty-first year. 
He then married on ist June 1790 the daughter of William James. He 
died 1801. 

For George Case, see ante, p. 1 1 1 ; and for Thomas Leyland, see 
Leyland and Bullins, p. 169. 

* Richard Brooke (" Ancient Liverpool," p. 254) puts the date of 
this change at 1795 or 1796 ; but evidently he was not aware of this 

* In the directory of 1803 there is a Thomas Morland, coast waiter, 
Rodney Street. About 1811 he removed to Brownlow Street, where 
he died, 2nd February 1819, aged 65. Whether or not these two are 
identical, I have been unable to ascertain. The ages would appear to 
be about the same in both cases, and both came from Knuuford. 


The new partners were Thomas John Parke 
and Henry Clay. The first was the son of 
Thomas Parke, and had been with the bank for 
some years. Both he and Henry Clay had been 
appointed members of the Town Council on yth 
November 1792. He graduated to bailiff in 
1794. At this time he was joint-tenant with 
James Gregson of the bank house in Lord 
Street, but on his marriage, 2Oth October 
1 804, to the daughter of John Colquitt, the 
Town Clerk, he took a house in Ranelagh 

Henry Clay was the son of Richard Clay, who 
died 28th October 1774. The latter was an 
eminent tobacco manufacturer, residing in Church 
Street, with his warehouses and manufactory in 
School Lane. The title of his firm was Clay & 
Midgley. When in 1774 his son succeeded him, 
the title of the firm became Clay, Holding, & 
Parry, and so continued till 1790, when the style 
became Clay, Parry, & Midgley. Henry Clay 
continued to live with his widowed mother 1 at 
23 Church Street, till on his marriage, 25th 
April 1791, with Miss Frances Wilson, he re- 
moved to 62 Duke Street. 

As stated above, he was appointed to the Town 
Council 7th November 1792. He became bailiff 
in 1793, the year in which he joined the bank. 

1 Mrs. Clay died 4th September 1794. 


His sister had married his partner, John Gregson, 
in 1786. The firm thus reconstituted pro- 
gressed favourably, and by 1796 John Gregson 
had obtained the office, with large emoluments, 
of Receiver-General of the Land Tax for the 
county of Lancaster, and had removed his abode 
to 6 Slater Street. But the senior, William 
Gregson, died on the 28th December 1800, aged 
81, being then father of the Corporation of 
Liverpool. John Gregson thereupon removed 
to the mansion at Everton, and here in 1 803 he 
entertained Prince William of Gloucester. 

In 1805 Henry Clay became Mayor. But 
trouble was in store for the bank. On 25th 
November 1805 the following circular was 
issued : 

" The co-partnership carried on by us under the name 
of Gregsons, Parkes, & Clay, as bankers, is this day dis- 
solved by mutual consent. 

(Signed) JNO. GREGSON. 

The business was continued by John Gregson, 
James Gregson, and Henry Clay. 

Some undisclosed scandalous conduct in the 
bank's affairs on the part of Thomas J. Parke was 
the reason for the dissolution. But there can 


be no doubt that the defection of the Parkes 
caused a considerable weakening of the bank's 

The new partnership continued business till 
2 ist April 1807, when John Gregson committed 
suicide by hanging himself at his house in Ever- 
ton, being then aged 52. 

The bank then ceased business, and its affairs 
dragged on for a great number of years. Smithers 
("Liverpool," p. 167. Liverpool, 1825) says 
that upon the final adjustment of the concerns, 
recently made, the full amount of all the debts 
were paid. 

In January 1808 the freehold and other pro- 
perties belonging to the bank were offered for 
sale. Among them was a moiety of the " Golden 
Lion Inn," Dale Street, which in 1837-8 became 
the site of the building of the Liverpool Royal 

Early in April 1807 the Corporation of Liver- 
pool voted Henry Clay a piece of plate valued at 
i oo guineas, as a testimony of the Corporation to 
the respectful attention shown to H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales on his visit to Liverpool. 

He had recently taken a country house in 
Lodge Lane, and at this he lived in retirement 
for some years. 

But the Corporation of Liverpool, whatever its 
faults, did not forget its friends. On I7th June 


1 8 1 1 James Gildart, Receiver of the Dock 
Duties, died suddenly^ and the very next day the 
Corporation appointed Henry Clay to the vacant 
office. Later on he resided at 15 Wavertree 
Road, where he died suddenly on 28th May 1828. 
He is described by "The Old Stager" as a 
" frank, jovial, light-hearted fellow." 

But if the Corporation could thus reward one 
of its members, it could also punish others. 
Under date 5th December 1813 the Council 
minutes run : 

** The opinions of Mr. Holroyd and Mr. Scarlett, 
relative to the power of this Council to remove Mr. 
Thomas John Parke, one of the members, for his gross 
misconduct when a partner in the late banking house of 
Messrs. Gregson & Co., and for his continued neglect of 
attendance at the Council of this Borough, having been 

" Resolved and ordered, that the regular summons re- 
quiring the attendance of Mr. Parke at the next Council 
be served upon him and repeated, as recommended in the 
Opinions, with a view to the expulsion of Mr. Parke as 
one of the members of the Council." 

"1814, April 6//r. Resolved that the resignation of 
Mr. Thomas John Parke as one of the members of the 
Council signified in his letter to the Mayor now read 
be and the same is hereby accepted." 

It is curious to note that although Mr. T. J. 
Parke is thus stated in the Council minutes to 
have been allowed to resign, yet at the Com- 


mission held in 1833 to inquire into the Liver- 
pool Corporation, Mr. John Foster, the then 
Town Clerk, stated that the Corporation possessed 
power to expel its members, which they had exer- 
cised in two instances, Mr. Thomas John Parke 
and Mr. Weston. 

After a while Mr. T. J. Parke retired to 
France, becoming one of the large army of 
refugees, who, leaving their country for their 
country's good, yet drew considerable sums 
from their estates, without contributing to the 
heavy taxation of the period. He died at 
his residence, Beau Sejour, near Tours, on 5th 
September 1823. 

His father, Thomas Parke, continued his resi- 
dence at Highfield, " a fine, glorious, jovial old 
man," in the words of " The Old Stager," until 
his death, 3<Dth November 1819, aged 90. His 
wife, Anne, survived him till i6th December 
1827, being then in her eighty-eighth year. 

The remaining partner, James Gregson, con- 
tinued his independent business, and by 1 8 1 1 had 
removed from Great George Street to 46 Rodney 
Street, then having an insurance office at the 
north side of the Town Hall. Both the private 
and business addresses indicate a certain amount 
of well-being, but later traces of him are not 

His character is preserved by " The Old 


Stager/' whose thumb-nail sketches are all of 
men he had met. " We had also our circle of 
wits. . . . Jim Gregson, who lived in Rodney 
Street, a man of racy humour, with a fund of 
originality about him which revelled in the utter- 
ance of good things." 



THIS was by no means an important firm, and 
had, as a bank, but a short existence. The first 
of the family who honoured Liverpool with his 
presence was Samuel, who having had some 
London experience in book-selling, commenced 
business on 24th November 1775 at 43 Water 
Street, opposite the Talbot Hotel, as a bookseller 
and stationer. Early in July 1777 he was married 
at St. Anne's Church to Miss Glass. His brothers, 
Thomas and Joseph, were grocers in Chester, 
having a dwelling-house and land at Boughton, 
where they carried on the manufacture of stone 
and Prussian blue. The three joined hands, and 
on 1 6th November 1786 the following circular 
appeared : " Thomas, Samuel, and Joseph Crane 
respectfully inform the public that they have 
opened a bank, the corner of Dale Street, near 
the Exchange, where business in that line will 
be regularly transacted on liberal terms." This 
house was numbered 174 Dale Street. In 


October 1787 they had a fire on their premises, 
which did but little damage. As illustrative of 
the time is added the newspaper remark : " They 
were insured a pleasing precaution.*' In De- 
cember of the same year Joseph Crane removed 
his bookselling and stationery business (which 
included patent medicines, &c.) to the corner of 
Mathew Street and John Street. On loth June 
1788 a commission in bankruptcy was issued 
against them, and by December of that year a 
dividend of 6s. 8d. in the had been paid on 
debts " to which there was no objection." Those 
debts to which there was objection included bills 
issued by them " payable to fictitious payees," so 
that the class of business done by Cranes may 
readily be inferred. 

It appears that the house in John Street was 
their property, and this, with a house on the 
west side of Hope Street, with garden attached, 
were sold by auction. The Chester properties 
too came under the hammer. 

Other dividends were paid in 1792, 1794, and 

Castle Street was widened in 1786, and in 
that and the following year the west side was 
rebuilt. In February 1789 Samuel Crane notifies 
the public " that he has removed to the new 
side of Castle Street, four doors from the 
corner of Brunswick Street, nearer the Ex- 


change." This was numbered 58 in 1790. By 
the directory of 1796 the business appears as 
Crane & Jones, and this firm published The 
Liverpool Guide. By 1800 the name of Crane 
had disappeared. 



Staniforth, Ingram, Bold, & Daltera The partners, and their con- 
nections Ingram, Kennett & Ingram of Wakefield Dissolution 
of partnership. 

THE banking firm under the above style had not 
a long career, but the several partners were fully 
typical of their time. Full of energy and re- 
source, they engaged in multifarious businesses, 
and enjoyed considerable reputation in their day 
and generation. 

They commenced business as bankers at the 
latter end of 1791, and closed on the ist January 
1795. The banking house was in Pool Lane 
(now South Castle Street), at the corner of 
Litherland Alley, immediately opposite King 
Street. The partners were Thomas Staniforth, 
Francis Ingram, Jonas Bold, and Joseph Daltera. 

THOMAS STANIFORTH was an eminent mer- 
chant, principally engaged in the Greenland 
fisheries. This business was commenced in 
Liverpool in 1750 by Charles Goore, Bailiff in 
1747, Mayor in 1754-5 and 1767, who died 


1 3th March 1783, aged 81. His wife Margery, 
daughter of Henry Halsall of Everton, died 
1 2th August 1776, aged 70. About 1764 (?) 
Thomas Staniforth appears to have married their 
daughter Elizabeth, and on Charles Goore's re- 
tirement from business some time prior to 1774 
(his son Henry having died 7th August 1771, 
aged 35), Thomas Staniforth joined the business 
of himself and his father-in-law, Goore had 
also a ropery extending from Ranelagh Street to 
the south end of Renshaw Street, and to this 
Thomas Staniforth also succeeded. When Rane- 
lagh Street was built up and Lawton Street 
formed, the offices of and entrance to the rope- 
walks were in the latter street. A large business 
was done in supplying cordage, &c., to the rapidly 
increasing number of mercantile and privateer 

The products of the Greenland fisheries were 
seal skins, seal oil, whalebone and whale oil, 
Staniforth's warehouse for the whalebone being 
at the top of Hanover Street. 

Thomas Staniforth is given in our earliest 
directories as residing in Union Street, but by 1777 
he had built and occupied a large mansion in 
Ranelagh Street. This eventually became the 
famous Lynn's "Waterloo Hotel," and its site 
is now occupied by the Central Station. He was 
also a partner in a wine, rum, and brandy firm, 



but this was dissolved ist July 1776, the business 
being continued by his partners, Richard Machell 
and Thomas Burton. Like the vast majority of 
the merchants of Liverpool, he had shares in 
slavers, and on the formation of the African 
Association in July 1777 he was appointed a 
member of the first committee. As early as 1774 
he was elected to the Chamber of Commerce, and 
continued his services for many years. 

He took an active part in municipal govern- 
ment, having been appointed to the Town Coun- 
cil in 1781, in which year he also became Bailiff. 
He was elected Mayor in 1797, after an extremely 
severe contest. He was a man of enlightened 
views, and was in 1789, on the founding of the 
Liverpool Marine Society for the benefit of 
masters of vessels, their widows and children, 
appointed first President. He was interested in 
music, and was at one time President of the 
Music Hall, the forerunner of our present Phil- 
harmonic Society. He died i5th December 
1803, in his sixty-ninth year, his wife surviving 
him till 29th January 1822, being then aged 
84. They had a daughter, who died I3th Feb- 
ruary 1791, aged 26. 

The son, Samuel Staniforth, who succeeded to 
the business and residence, was a notable char- 
acter. He is frequently referred to in the 
election squibs as "Surly" or " Sulky Sam," 


which his temperament justified, and he had the 
reputation of being the ugliest man in Liverpool. 
He was Bailiff in 1804, and Mayor in 1812, but 
later in life he did not prosper in business, and 
obtained the post of Distributor of Stamps. He 
died 5th April 1851, aged 82, his wife Mary, 
who was connected with the Littledales, having 
predeceased him on 24th August 1846, being 
then aged 73. When in business he had as a 
partner in the rope-making concern William 
Laird, but the partnership was dissolved 3ist 
December I82I. 1 

Samuel's son was Thomas, who entered the 
Church, and was in 1832 inducted to the rectory 
of Bolton-in-Bowland, on the presentation of 
John Bolton of Storrs, Windermere. 2 

1 William Laird then went to Birkenhead, and joined Daniel Horton 
as boiler-makers. This partnership was dissolved 4th October 1818, 
William Laird continuing. 

2 John Bolton was the retired wealthy West Indian merchant and 
active Liverpool politician, whose house in Duke Street witnessed 
many notable election events. He was a vigorous supporter of 
Canning, and from the balcony of his house Canning made his last 
public speech in Liverpool. On the resumption of the war with 
France in 1803 Bolton raised and equipped at his sole expense a 
regiment of 800 men. This, the ist Battalion of the Liverpool 
Volunteers, he commanded, and he is therefore constantly referred to 
as Colonel Bolton. He had willed his country seat, Storrs, Winder- 
mere, with 3000 acres of land surrounding it, to Harold Little-dale, but, 
in consequence of the latter having lost ^3000 in helping a Scotch- 
man to work a kelp invention in the Western Isles, he altered his will 
and devised the estate to the Staniforth family, the Rev. Thomas 
Staniforth succeeding, with a proviso that failing male heirs it should 
revert to Harold Littledale. The Rev. Thomas Staniforth died in 


FRANCIS INGRAM, the second partner, was an 
excellent sample of the old Liverpool merchant, 
shrewd, capable, courageous. The business in 
Liverpool was commenced by his brother 
William, who had his office and residence at 
the house in Pool Lane, where the bank we 
are now considering subsequently made its home. 
They were sons of William Ingram of Oulton, 
near Wakefield, and of Sarah, daughter of Eliza- 
beth Bradley. The latter was daughter of John 
Bever, through whom the Ingrams inherited a 
considerable amount of property in Wakefield, 
including that even now remarkable timbered 
house known as the '*Six Chimneys," in Kirk- 
gate. William Ingram died 2yth June 1753, at 
the early age of 49, and his widow, Sarah, survived 
him till 8th December 1780, being then aged 75. 

William the younger was early to the fore in 
business, and in respect in the town. 

When Thurot was ravaging the British coasts, 
the Liverpool Corporation and the inhabitants 

1886, and under the proviso the estate pasted to Harold Littledale'i 
only daughter, Sarah Annabella, who had married, 151*1 August 1874, 
Sir Thomas Fletcher Boughey, Bart., of Aqualate, co. Stafford. 
The Rev. Thomas Staniforth rowed in the first race between Oxford 
and Cambridge, and dined with the crewi on the fiftieth anniversary 
of that race. Samuel Staniforth had an only daughter, Sarah, who 
Carried, jist May iSxS, Frederick Greenwood of SwarclifTe Hall, 
v orks. They had a son, John, whose third son, Edwin Wilfred, suc- 
ceeded to the Rev. Thomas Staniforth's property, and on ;th December 
1887 assumed by Royal Licence the name and arms of Stan) forth. He 
is of Kirk Hammerton Hall, Yorks. 


successfully raised four companies of volunteers 
for the defence of the town. Each company 
was accoutred at its own expense. One of the 
companies was captained by William Ingram, 
and made a brave show on review in 1760 "in 
scarlet coats and breeches, lapelled and faced with 
green, green waistcoats, gold-laced hats, and 
queue wigs." He was then but twenty-four 
years of age. He was a good sportsman, had 
his game-cock matches, and raced his horses 
against rivals for 100 guineas a side. 

When Sir William Meredith contested Liver- 
pool in 1761, one of his principal supporters, 
and host during the election, was William 
Ingram. On the declaration of the poll, Sir 
William was chaired from the Exchange to the 
house in Pool Lane. 

About 1767 William Ingram retired to Oulton, 
near Wakefield, and died I4th October 1770, 
aged 34. He by will, dated 3ist January 1763, 
devised his estate to his mother Sarah. 

His brother John had died November 1758, 
aged 2 1 . He had properties in Kirkgate, Wake- 
field, contiguous to the " Six Chimneys," which 
had been surrendered to him in 1750 by John 
Bever, and in 1766 his property was conveyed 
to his " only surviving brother and next heir, 
Francis." This does not agree with the fact 
that William was then living. 


Sarah Ingram, by will dated 2yth March 
1776, appointed her estate to her son Francis, 
who thus practically came into all the family 

He succeeded to his brother's business and 
premises in Liverpool about 1767. The business 
was that of a general merchant. Needless to 
say that it included the " African " or slave trade. 
We find him in 1772 dealing in ivory, teeth, and 
hardwoods, and he became a member of the first 
African Committee in 1777. 

Francis Ingram & Co. also were interested in 
privateers during the War of Independence and 
the subsequent war with France. Fortunately 
some records of this house survive, and some 
of the letters of instruction given by them 
to Captain Haslam of the Enterprise privateer 
are given in extemo in Corner Williams* "The 
Liverpool Privateers." They show great ad- 
ministrative ability, and are happy examples of 
the care, forethought, and capacity displayed by 
a Liverpool merchant of this date. Partners in 
their enterprise were Thomas and William Earle 
and Thomas Leyland. Francis Ingram had also 
a share in a ropery business, under the title of 
Ingram, Brown, & Co., but this was dissolved in 
March 1778, and the business continued by 
Thomas Brown. Towards 1789 he advertised 
his house for sale, as he was preparing to quit 


Liverpool for Wakefield, to which he was drawn 
by so many family ties. It did not find a pur- 
chaser, and he appears as occupier in the directory 
of 1790, possibly continuing in possession until 
it was taken over by the bank in 1791. 

In Wakefield he started a banking firm, Ingram, 
Kennett, & Ingram, his partners being his son, 
Abraham Richard Ingram, and Benjamin Kennett. 
He also opened a similar business at Halifax, his 
partners being his three sons, William, Henry, 
and Abraham Richard, and one Robert Witham. 
Precisely when these businesses were started is 
not known, but we find that, on 7th November 
1792, a marriage took place at Eccles between 
Benjamin Kennett of Wakefield, banker, and Miss 
Cath. Steer of the same place. 

Some of Francis Ingram's businesses in Liver- 
pool were continued. He had acquired the 
works on Copperas Hill for the manufacture 
of copperas, and under the style of Ingram and 
Spranger the manufacture was there continued 
until June 1 807, when the works were transferred 
to Litherland. 1 

Other interests were continued under the title 
of Ingrams, Rigby, & Co., which firm had offices 

1 Picton (" Memorials of Liverpool," vol. ii. 202, ed. 1875) says the 
copperas works on Copperas Hill were discontinued before 1796. 
This is incorrect: they were discontinued in the name of the former 
proprietor, Richard Hughes. In the map of 1796, as Picton notes, 
the works are still shown. 


first in Lower Castle Street, and later in Hey- 
wood's Yard, Gradwell Street. The partnership 
was continued until 3ist October 1803, the 
public notice of dissolution being issued so late 
as 8th April 1805. The then partners were 
Francis Ingram of Wakefield, banker, William 
Ingram of Halifax, banker, James Rigby of West 
Derby Breck, merchant, and Richard Butler of 
9 Kent Square, merchant. 

In the directory for 1 807 the style of the firm 
is given as Ingrams & Butler, merchants, 19 Parr 
Street. Hence it would appear that the dissolu- 
tion of partnership was only as regards James 
Rigby. The firm is given as shipowners in the 
list of Bidston signals for 1808. 

In 1807 the bank at Wakefield became in- 
volved, the then partners being Francis Ingram, 
Benjamin Kennett Dawson, and Abraham Richard 
Ingram. They executed a deed, 9th July 1807, 
to certain trustees, making the real and personal 
property of each of the partners liable for the 
debts due by the bank. Further, on I9th and 
2Oth October 1 809 other deeds were executed by 
Francis Ingram, making over his estates in Wake- 
field to the same trustees, subject to a debt due 
by the bank to their London agents, Messrs. 
Williams & Co. For the security of that debt 
Francis Ingram had deposited with Messrs. 
Williams & Co. the title-deeds of the estate. 


The co-partnership at Halifax was found indebted 
to the co-partnership at Wakefield, and the pro- 
perty was conveyed so that the proceeds of sale 
should be applied in discharge of the debt of 
the Halifax house to the Wakefield one. It 
is satisfactory to note that at the finish all the 
debts of the bank were paid in full. 

Francis Ingram continued to reside in St. 
John's Place, Wakefield, where he died, 28th 
August 1815, aged 76. His wife, Christian, 
survived him till iyth February 1816, being 
then aged 74. 

They were both buried beneath the chancel of 
All Saints, the parish church of Wakefield, now 
the Cathedral Church. Here also were buried 
the parents of Francis, William, and Sarah, with 
their other children, William, John, and Eliza. 

Also Catherine, Ann, Sarah, Mary, and Henry, 
children of Francis and Christian Ingram ; 
Henry was the youngest son, and died I3th 
March 1850, aged 69. 

Also Frances, who died I5th September 1831, 
aged 65, the wife of John, the son of Francis, 
also their children, Thomas, Frederick, and 

The stones which recorded the above were 
covered over when the chancel was paved with 
tiles, but brasses were placed on the spots cor- 
responding to the burying-places. 


In 1866, by the will of Abraham Richard 
Ingram, a monument to the memory of his 
parents was raised in the church by the filling 
of the east window with new tracery and painted 
glass at a cost of 800. On a brass below the 
window is the following inscription : 

"In mcmoriam Francisci et Christianz Ingram 
Parent urn hanc fencstram vitream ex testamento 
Abrahx Ricardi filii corum heredcs rcficicndum et 
pictura ornandum curaverunt a.d. mdccclxvi." 

It is not found that Francis Ingram's eldest 
son, John, was ever identified with any of the 
businesses. He married, iith February 1794, 
at Wycliffe, Yorks, Frances, only daughter and 
heiress of William Gream of Heath, near Halifax. 
In 1833 he erected a brass at the west end of the 
south aisle of Wakefield Church to the memory 
of his parents, Francis and Christian, his daughter 
Caroline, and his wife Frances. His son, Hugh 
Francis, placed a memorial brass at the west end 
of the north aisle to his father and sister. After 
stating that John died 3Oth January 1841, and 
giving like particulars of the sister, it says : 

"Deo scilicet animas reddiderunt. Romae 
Urbis intra muros sepulchrum habcnt." 

From the fact that in all these inscriptions no 
mention is made of Francis's son William, one 
of his former partners at Halifax, the author 


is inclined to connect with this family the 
following, who carried on business as coal 
merchants in Oldhall Street, and were interred 
in St. Philip's, Hardman Street, Liverpool : 

William Ingram, d. 16 Oct. 1824, aged 56. 
Jane, wife of do., d. 29 Nov. 1819, aged 46. 
Francis Ingram, d. 16 Jan. 1825, aged 50. 

Both the names and the ages point to this 

The third partner, JONAS BOLD, was a member 
of a very old Liverpool family. He commenced 
business on his own account early, having acquired 
in 1768 "The Old Sugar Mold Works," near the 
Folly (now Islington), formerly carried on in the 
name of Charles Wood & Co. He was then in 
his twenty-third year. " At the works were 
made sugar moulds and drips, chimney moulds, 
large jars for water, black mugs of sizes, crucibles 
and melting pots for silversmiths, founders," &c. 
But, of course, he must needs go in for the 
African trade. In 1777 he was one of the 
African merchants who formed a committee to 
regulate this business. His firm during the wars 
with America, France, Spain, and Holland de- 
spatched their privateers, in common with the 
majority of Liverpool merchants. In the early 
part of his career he lived at 64 Strand Street. 
Not far off, at 14 Redcross Street, near the 


corner of Strand Street, lived Isaac Oldham, 
sugar merchant. The writer is unable to trace 
any relationship between the two, but on the 
death of the latter on i4th July 1782, aged 76, 
Jonas Bold succeeded to the mansion and the 
business. Bold's third son was born in 1785, and 
was christened Isaac Oldham. Redcross Street 
at this time was a very fashionable street. Here 
Jonas Bold lived in luxury for many years. He 
was chosen by the Common Council to be one 
of their body, became Bailiff in 1796, and Mayor 
in 1802, after a contest. He belonged to the 
Conservative party, yet in 1790, when a memorial 
was addressed to the Mayor and Bailiffs, signify- 
ing strong dissent from the manner of selecting 
members for the Council, and objecting to some 
members who had been chosen, we find his name 
as one of the signatories. The matter complained 
of was not remedied until after the Parliamentary 
Enquiry into the Corporation in 1833. 

In 1797, when news reached Liverpool of the 
invasion of England at Fishguard by the French, 
the usual active spirit was displayed. One 
thousand volunteers were immediately enrolled, 
and were divided into eight companies. Of one 
of these Jonas Bold was captain. His house was 
on the south side of Redcross Street, below Sea 
Brow, and he transferred all the sugar business 
of Isaac Oldham to his own premises in Strand 


Street, from which he constructed a counting- 
house and sugar warehouses, jointly known as 
Bold's Court. 

Sometime prior to 1807 he acquired a house 
in Burlington Street, Bath, where he died, 2Oth 
October 1822, aged 77. 

His eldest son, Arthur, became Vicar of Stoke 
Pogis, Bucks, and died there, 2ist January 1831. 
The second son, Peter, died in Jersey, 5th August 
1832. The third son, Isaac Oldham, married, 
1 8th June 1816, Elizabeth, daughter of the late 
John Gregson of Everton (see Gregson & Co.). 
He was a merchant, entered the Town Council, 
and became Bailiff in 1827, at the same time as 
Samuel Thompson, one of the partners in Hey- 
wood's Bank. He died 5th December 1853, 
aged 68, and his wife Elizabeth died 26th May 
1857, aged 61. 

Bold Street is named after Jonas Bold, who in 
1786 had a lease of the land granted him by the 
Corporation. He forthwith proceeded to lay out 
the street. He also owned land at the top of 
the street, extending over the site of St. Luke's 
Church. He also owned by 1790 several acres 
of land in Everton, near St. Domingo Mere. 

The remaining partner was JOSEPH DALTERA, 
also a merchant. One of his early advertisements 
has caused certain ill-informed people to imagine 
that the sale of human beings was the regular 


custom in Liverpool. This, of course, was not 
the case. The fact that practically the whole of 
the sales took place far beyond the ken of the 
man in the street was one of the main causes of 
the apathetic attitude of the bulk of the people 
towards the viciousness of the slave trade. Had 
the horrors of the traffic been before their eyes, 
there is no doubt but that the iniquity would have 
been swept away long before the time when, by 
the persistent efforts of noble philanthropists, this 
was accomplished. The instances of actual sale 
might be counted on the fingers of one hand, 
though it is notorious that a black attendant, 
regarded certainly as a chattel, was the frequent 
apanage of a fashionable establishment. 

The advertisement, appearing under date iyth 
June 1757, is as follows : 

"To be sold 10 pipes of raisin wine, a parcel of 
bottled cyder, and a negro boy, apply to Joseph Daltera, 
merchant, in Union Street, who sells at his warehouse 
near the Salt House, Dock Gates, fine, second, and coarse 

He prospered for a while in business, and in 
1774 we find him elected to the Chamber of 
Commerce. But in 1778 he was declared bank- 
rupt, his partners being John Dobson and John 
Walker, deceased. He appears to have soon 
rehabilitated himself, for in 1780 he was again 


elected to the Chamber of Commerce. His life, 
after his becoming a partner in the bank, was 
but short. He had, after one or two changes of 
address, settled down in the fashionable Hanover 
Street sometime prior to 1774, and here he re- 
sided till his death, 2nd October 1793. 

His wife Jane survived him thirty-three years, 
dying at her house in Rodney Street, loth January 
1826, in the ninetieth year of her age. 

They had a son Joseph, though no one ever 
called him by that name : to every one he was 
" Joe." Nominally he was an attorney and 
notary, but his real life was that of a diner out. 
In demand as a wit and raconteur ^ he wasted his 
undoubted talents in one long round of dining 
and dissipation. " The Old Stager " has many 
amusing pages of his sayings and doings. 

As before stated, the bank existed but a few 
years. It is not mentioned in Gore's " Directory," 
because there was no issue of that valuable volume 
between 1790 and 1796. But in the brief period 
of its existence it had experience of one of the 
stormiest times that ever the banking and com- 
merce of England were subjected to. The strain 
caused by the declaration of war with France in 
1793 was well-nigh intolerable, and in Liverpool 
led to a remarkable and bold experiment, detailed 
in a separate chapter, to counteract the universal 


The circular notifying the dissolution is as 
follows : 

"The partnership in the banking house at Liverpool, 
carried on under the firm of Staniforth, Ingram, Bold, 
and Daltcra, was dissolved by mutual consent on 
1st January 1795. Witness our hands: 





Exor. of late Jos. DALTERA. 

LtVEBPOOL, Afrit 14, 1795." 

Fancy a modern bank giving notice of a dis- 
solution of partnership four months after the 
event ! 



The panic of 1793 Special meeting and resolutions of Town Council 
Appointment of joint-committee of Common Councilmen and 
merchants Report Meetings of merchants and resolutions 
Application for assistance to Bank of England Refusal of ap- 
plication Application to Parliament by petition for leave to 
bring in a Bill authorising the issue of negotiable notes State- 
ment of Corporation property Bill passed Issue of notes 
Early retirement of notes All loans paid off. 

WHEN the panic that set in, on the declara- 
tion of war by France in 1793, ruined many 
merchants of the highest status, overthrew 
Charles Caldwell & Co., and menaced the other 
bankers and merchants in the town, it was felt 
that a united effort was needed to cope with the 
situation. The then Mayor, Clayton Tarleton, 
on the 2Oth March 1793 held a meeting of the 
principal merchants of Liverpool in the Ex- 
change. Sundry resolutions were passed, and 
in compliance with one of them the Mayor 
called a special meeting of the Council, which 
was held the same day. The report of this 


CH. xi FAILURES OF 1793 145 

meeting, taken from the Corporation Records, 
is as follows: 

' 1793, Man A SO. 

" Cmmm TAUJTON, 

"The Mayor having reported to this Council that 
the late extensive failures, particularly of some great 
commercial and banking houses in London, were almost 
immediately followed with the failure of a very old and 
principal banking house in Liverpool ; that the latter 
failure had now caused such an alarm in this town and its 
neighbourhood, that not only the other banking houses 
were greatly distressed, but there was an apprehension 
of a general calamity to the merchants, traders, and 
inhabitants of this place, and to the County of Lancaster 
at large, from the shock to public confidence and from 
the want of immediate pecuniary resource. That under 
this impression he had this day held a meeting of some 
of the principal merchants in the Exchange, at which 
several resolutions were entered into, and they had 
unanimously subscribed the following paper, earnestly 
requesting him to convene the Common Council to 
consider whether it might not be proper to offer the 
Corporate Seal to the Bank of England for a loan of 
money to assist the credit of this place by an application 
under the direction of a Committee, composed of an 
equal number of Members of the Common Council and 
of respectable Merchants out of the Council, or to con- 
sider whether it was possible for the Common Council, 
by taking measures in their Corporate capacity, to avert 
the common ruin that seemed to threaten the commerce 
of the town. 

"It is, therefore, now unanimously resolved by the 


Council that the very unprecedented and truly alarming 
state of the public credit of this country, and of this 
town in particular, does, in the opinion of this Council, 
well justify the Meeting of the Merchants held here this 
day and the requisition made for the convening of this 
Special Council. 

" That the representations now made of the distresses 
of all commercial persons in this town do well deserve 
the very serious attention of this Council, so as to induce 
them to consider whether any, and what, effectual relief 
can be afforded in their Corporate capacity. That they, 
therefore, do now nominate the following six members, 
viz. the Mayor, Mr. Alderman Earle, Mr. Alderman 
William Crosbie, junior, Mr. Alderman Case, Mr. 
Brooks, and Mr. Statham, a Committee to confer with 
the same number of gentlemen appointed by the 
Merchants at large at their meeting held this day in 
the Exchange ; that such Committee be requested to 
prepare themselves with a report of what they may 
consider proper to be done ; the same to be made at 
a further Special Council which the Mayor is now 
instructed to call to be held to-morrow evening at six 

The members appointed at the meeting of 
merchants to the joint-committee were Messrs. 
John Brown, Edward Falkner, Richard Walker, 
Thomas Hayhurst, Thomas Leyland, and Jacob 

The committee met and prepared a report, 
which was presented to the Council at their 


special meeting on list March. The report 
reads : 

"That they had found, after an interview with the 
four existing banking houses in the town, that the sum 
of a hundred thousand pounds was wanted, and would be 
sufficient to answer the present exigencies ; . . . that it 
was expedient for the preservation of public credit that 
some speedy method should be adopted of raising the 
money ; . . . that the most desirable mode would be by 
an application from the Corporation to the Directors of 
the Bank of England through the medium of Mr. Pitt, 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and of the Lords of 
the Treasury ; . . . that such loan when obtained should 
be advanced, under the direction of the Committee 
through the local bankers, on satisfactory securities, 
within the space of fifteen months, beyond which period 
it was their opinion no further advances would be 

Public notice was given by the meeting of 
the merchants on 2Oth March in the following 
terms : 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed do mutually 
pledge ourselves to each other, and the public, that we 
are ready and willing to receive in payment the bills of 
the several Banking Houses in this town of WILLIAM 


Two months' date, as hath been the usual and cus- 
tomary practice." 

Signed by 223 merchants and firms. 

On 25th March a further advertisement 
appeared : 

"At a GENERAL MEETING of the Merchants and 
Traders in this town, held in the Exchange on Wednes- 
the 20th inst., and at a SPECIAL COUNCIL held in the 
evening of the same day, to consider of the most prob- 
able means for restoring the public confidence in the 
present Stagnation of Credit, the following gentlemen 
were appointed a joint COMMITTEE to deliberate upon 
the most speedy and effectual means of accomplishing so 
desirable an object, viz. : 

Committee of Merchants. Committee of Council. 

John Brown, Clayton Tarleton (Mayor), 

Edward Falkner, Alderman Earle, 

Richard Walker, Alderman Wm. Crosbie, 

7 ' 

Thomas Hayhurst, Jun., 

Thomas Leyland, Alderman Case, 

Jacob Nelson, Joseph Brooks, 

Richard Statham, 

which Committee, having sat the two following days are 
happy in finding that the result of their deliberations 
appears to have met with general approbation, and the 
more so as they entertain the pleasing hope of the good 
consequences being soon experienced : from those motives 
they are induced to submit the following resolution to 
the consideration of the public : 


" Reiofoed unanimomfyj That this Committee having the 
interest and welfare of the town of Liverpool very much 
at heart, and taking into consideration the difficulties 
that may arise in providing for the bills which may be 
returned in the present critical state of credit, DO MOST 
EARNESTLY RECOMMEND to the holders of such bills, as 
one very important means of obtaining the above laud- 
able purpose, to make the payments as easy to the parties 
who may be called upon as shall be consistent with 
prudence to themselves : And, as in many cases, 
Ferbtarance may be a wise measure for the interest of 
the public in general, and of the bill holders in par- 
ticular, this Committee recommend as much indulgence 
as the exigency of the times and their own discretion 
will admit, and as may be most prudent and eligible, in 
every point of view. 

"JOHN BROWN, Chairman. 1 * 

The Town Council confirmed the report of 
the ioint-committee, and appointed a deputa- 
tion to proceed to London to wait on the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Bank of 
England. The application was not successful. 

While negotiations were proceeding, a letter 
signed " A Tradesman " appeared in William- 
son's Advertiser of 8th April recommending the 
pledging of the Corporation credit for three 
months by the issuing of notes to the amount 
of 100,000, 200,000, or 300,000, and 
referring to the Corporation of Dublin, who, 
it is alleged, borrow everything they want on 


Debentures. This was to be in lieu of the 
Corporation " treating with the Bank of Eng- 
land for the present loan." 

A special Council meeting was called for 
April 15. 

" It having been reported by the Mayor that the 
negotiations with the Bank of England for the loan of 
1 00,000 on the Bond of this Corporation not having 
been successful, he and the other delegates from the very 
urgent necessity of removing with the greatest expedition 
possible the present stagnation of credit in Liverpool, 
thought it their duty to apply, and accordingly have 
applied, to Parliament by petition in the names of the 
Mayor and others of the Common Council then in 
London on behalf of themselves and the rest of the 
Council, for leave to bring in a Bill for the purpose of 
empowering the Corporation to issue negotiable notes to 
a certain amount and for a given period, on the credit of 
the Estate of the said Corporation. 

" This Council do fully in all respects ratify and con- 
firm every step which has been taken, and hereby fully 
empower the delegates to take every measure which 
shall seem to them expedient and necessary in order to 
carry into effect the said petition." 

The latter was as follows : 

" That the trade and commerce of the town have of 
late years greatly increased, and were continuing to do 
so till the stagnation of credit which has lately taken 
place both here and in other parts of the kingdom 


checked the same, and occasioned serious alarms of 
further inconvenience. 

" That in the event of such a want of credit being 
even for a short duration, your petitioners have great 
reason to apprehend the town of Liverpool will be greatly 
injured thereby, and that the manufacturers and traders 
throughout the County of Lancaster will feel the effects 
of it to a very great extent, by which the interest of the 
public and of individuals will be materially affected and 
the Estate of the Corporation of Liverpool will be much 
lessened in its value. 

" That this alarming evil may, your petitioners humbly 
conceive, be remedied by authority being given to the 
Corporation to issue negotiable notes for different sums 
of money, in the whole considerably below the value of 
their estates after making allowance for their present 
debts, the notes to be payable with lawful interest 
thereon or otherwise at a time to be limited ; provision 
being made that the estate of the said Corporation shall 
be subjected to the discharge of the said notes at the 
period at which they shall become payable. 

"With this view your petitioners are desirous of 
laying before the House a precise statement of their 
property and of the engagements to which it is liable 
in order to enable the House to judge of the grounds of 
this application." 

The statement of their property is as follows. 
It is to be noted that it is dated 2ist March 
1793, an d was doubtless primarily prepared to 
exhibit to the Chancellor of the Exchequer and 
the Bank of England. 



Income for 1792. 

s. d. 

Fines received for renewal of leases . 2270 14 4 

Ground rent received for 1792 . . 1027 I 10 
Rent for buildings in possession, let to 

tenants at will . . . . 5166 17 6 

Rents for land in possession, let to tenants 

at will . . . . . 1349 i o 

Amount of town's duties . . . 12, 1 80 7 o 

Graving docks ..... 1701 16 5 

Anchorage . . . . . . 211153 

'Small tolls called ingates and outgates . 321 9 7 

Weighing machine . . . . 143 4 o 

Rent of seats in St. George's Church . 268 1 1 o 
Arrears of interest from parish of Liver- 
pool . .- . : ; . . . 360 o o 

25,000 17 ii 

Interest and Annuities paid in 1792. 

Annual interest upon the bond debts, s. d. 

principally 4^ per cent. . . 15,835 14 3 

Annuities upon bond . . . .'" 2109 12 10 

Balance in favour of the Corporation 1 . 7055 10 10 

25,000 17 ii 

1 In the statement given by Aikin, "Thirty Miles Around 
Manchester," p. 378 (London, 1795), of the Corporation Finances, 
there is an error of jiooo in the Revenue Statement. This has been 
copied into Brooke's "Ancient Liverpool," p. 408 (Liverpool, 1853). 


Value of the above articles, adding that 

of the land not built on, and the / s. d. 

strand of the river . . . 1,044,776 o o 

Valuation of the debt , .. ^ . 367,816 12 o 

Balance in favour of the Corporation 676,959 8 o 
Exclusive of a balance due from the 

trustees of the docks, and of the 

reversionary interest of certain lots 

of ground laid out for building, 

both together estimated at . . 60,000 o o 
Exclusive also of public buildings, 

and ground appropriated to public 

purposes, valued at , . 85,000 o o 

Net value of Corporation property .821,959 8 o 

The Bill so promoted passed its first reading 
on 2nd May, the second reading on 3rd May by 
a majority of I9, 1 and passed into Committee, 
finally passing loth May, and is known as 33 
George III. cap. 31. This Act enabled the 
Corporation of Liverpool to issue for two 
years, against the deposit of approved securi- 
ties, promissory notes for 5 and 10, not 
bearing interest, and of 50 and 100, bear- 
ing interest, the total amount not to exceed 

1 In the minority voted John Tarleton of Liverpool, then member 
for Seaford, in SUMCX. In 1796 he contested Liverpool, and this vote 
was then brought up against him. 

The Corporation then issued the following : 

*'To the Merchants and Inhabitants of Liverpool. 

"GENTLEMEN, The Committee for carrying into 
effect the Act lately passed for issuing negotiable notes 
by the Corporation, on laying before you the rules 
and regulations by which the plan will be conducted 
and the terms on which loans will be granted by the 
Common Council, beg leave to observe that they have 
framed both with a view to give every accommodation 
to the public, consistent with due safety to the Cor- 
poration Estate. This was indispensably their duty, and 
they flatter themselves their endeavours to unite those 
objects will be found effectual, and be viewed and 
received with candour. 

"The business of a Loan Office on the principles 
intended by the Act is without a parallel ; and there 
being no institution from which the Committee could 
derive information to aid their deliberations, they do 
not suppose that the rules and regulations now laid 
before you are the best possible ; a little experience 
may point out their defects, and those defects will be 
remedied and removed as they are discovered. The 
mode of obtaining a loan will be found unembarrassed, 
easy, and expeditious ; the terms are as moderate as the 
expenses which will unavoidably attend the institution 
would permit, and fixed on that sure basis which will 
protect the Corporation Estate from injury. 

" It now rests with you to second the endeavours or 
the Corporation. The inconveniences resulting from a 
convulsion before unknown in the Commercial history of 


this country, all have been exposed to, all have in a 
greater or less degree experienced : the remedy in a 
considerable degree is now within your power, and that 
is by receiving the notes to be issued in discharge of all 
your simple contract debts. 

" That you may inspire each other with confidence in 
this respect, it is recommended that you signify your 
assent to do so publicly and without reserve. It has 
been suggested that this intention will be most easily 
collected by signing your acquiescence at Mr. Gore's 
shop near the Exchange. 

" The notes will be ready to be issued in a few days, 
and notice will be given of the day on which the Public 
Office will be opened in the Exchange. 

"The Committee, and all persons employed under 
them, will be bound to observe an unviolable secrecy on 
all applications to the Office for Loans or in any other 

" By order of the Committee, 

**JoHN COLQUITT, Secretary. 


" LIVERPOOL, 8/A May 1793." 

The public notice of the appointment of 
Commissioners was as follows: 

"Liverpool, At a Common Council, held in the 
Council Chamber, within the Exchange there, this 5th 
day of June 1793, being the first Wednesday in the 
month, pursuant to ancient custom. 

"In pursuance of an Act of Parliament, made and 
passed in the thirty-third year of the reign of his present 


Majesty, King George the III., entitled ' An Act to 
enable the Common Council of the town of Liverpool, 
in the County of Lancaster, on behalf and on account of 
the Corporation of the said town, to issue negotiable 
notes for a limited time and for a limited amount,' the 
said Council do now authorise George Case, Thomas 
Earle, Henry Blundell 1 , Joseph Brooks, Thomas Naylor, 
and Henry Clay, all of Liverpool aforesaid, merchants, 
and Richard Statham of the same place, gentleman, 
and each of them severally and respectively, to sign and 
subscribe for and on behalf of the said Corporation of 
Liverpool, the notes to be issued and paid by the said 
Common Council, by virtue and under the powers of 
the said Act of Parliament. 

" COLQUITT, Town Clerk. 

" N.B. The Corporation Loan Office, in the Ex- 
change, is open for the despatch of business, the rules 
and regulations of which may be had at the said 

Judicious use was made of the powers thus 
acquired, and the result was a great success. So 
much so was it that the Loan Committee found 
themselves in March of the next year in the 
happy position of being able to take up notes in 
their priority of date before they were due, and 
public notice was given to the effect that notes 
payable in June would be taken up in April, 
and later a second notice stated that the notes 


payable in June and July would be paid on 
2 ist April. 

On 1 2th March 1793 tnc Annual Report of 
the Negotiable Note Office was presented, by 
which it appeared that the notes issued to 25th 
February amounted to ^140,390, and the value 
of the securities deposited to ^155,907, i6s. 6d., 
and that the amount of notes then in circulation 
was ^35,315. The Committee stated that much 
good had been done by the issue, and were of 
opinion that the Act should be extended for 
another three years. The extension was allowed 
for another year only. On 7th September 
1796 the Committee presented a report pre- 
paratory to the final winding up of the opera- 
tions under the Act. The loans were stated 
to have all been paid off, and the notes 

The engraved forms of the promissory notes 
were as follows : 

No. LIVERPOOL, 179 . 

Twelve months after date I promise to pay to 

or bearer One Hundred pounds, with interest 
for the same after the rate of per cent, by the year. 

For the Corporation of Liverpool. 
One hundred. 

No. LIVERPOOL, 179 . 

On demand I promise to pay to or 

bearer Five Pounds, according to an Act of Parliament 
passed in the thirty-third year of the reign of H/s 
Majesty King George the Third. 

For the Corporation of Liverpool. 

The notes for ^50 and 10 were respectively 
in accordance with the two forms as given above. 







Sir Michael Cromie, Bart., Powooll, St Hartman Note-liming 
bank Partner* Bank dissolved Bankruptcies of Pownoll 
and Hartman. 

THIS bank is not mentioned in any history or 
directory of Liverpool that the author is acquainted 
with, yet its existence is abundantly attested by 
the survival of many of the notes issued by it, 
and by various legal notices relative to its bank- 
ruptcy. It is especially interesting, since it is the 
only genuine banking house in Liverpool that 
ever issued notes. When it was founded is quite 
unknown, but reference seems to be made to it in 
the postscript to the second edition of Jasper 
Wilson's (i.e. Dr. James Currie) letter to William 
Pitt : " A bank is proposed at Glasgow, and one 
has been established at Liverpool, for this express 
purpose," i.e. the issue of paper currency. But 
this is dated 1793, an d all the notes of this 
firm yet seen are dated 1801. If the reference is 
not to this house, then, accepting Dr. Currie's 


statement as fact, we have another paper-issuing 
house of which no record is obtainable. In the 
directory for 1796, neither the banking house 
nor any of the partners individually are in any 
way referred to. As is most probable, the 
partners were non-resident. It is suggested 
also that only the later issued notes of the bank 
would survive, viz. those in circulation, as the 
earlier ones would on suspension of the firm be 
carried away or destroyed. But this, of course, 
is mere surmise. The banking office was at the 
then 25 Lord Street, on the northern side, some- 
where about where the present Lord Street 
Arcade is. The same premises were occupied in 
June 1801 by Felix Yaniewicz, 1 showing that by 
that date the bank had ceased to be. 

1 Felix Yaniewicz, solo violinist, impresario, music and musical 
instrument dealer, was a great factor in local musical life. He con- 
ducted at the local musical festivals, and there is ample testimony that 
he was an excellent violinist. He occupied the premises of the 
defunct banking company for some years. By 1811 the firm had 
become Yaniewicz & Green. By 1818 he had taken premises on the 
south side of Lord Street, then numbered 60, and had as a partner 
Willoughy D. Gaspard Weiss. The latter was a flute player. His 
son, born znd April 1820, was Willoughby Hunter Weiss, who was 
celebrated as a bass singer in oratorio, and who composed about 1854 
the extraordinarily popular setting of "The Village Blacksmith." 
He died Z4th October 1867. A recent memory of his voice appears in 
H. Klein's " Thirty Years of Musical Life in London " (London, 
Heinemann, 1903), when he pictures the Principal of Opie House 
School, Norwich, describing to his boys (1863-4?) " the remarkable 
voice he had heard in the bass solos of the Messiah,' " the famous 
Weiss. The firm continued at 60 Lord Street till 1817, when, on 
3ist August, they gave notice that they removed from that address to 






The partners were Sir Michael Cromie, Bart., 
Philemon Pownoll, and Isaac Hartman. 

Sir Michael Cromie was son of William Cromic, 
a merchant in Dublin, and second son of William 
Cromie of Cromore, co. Meath. William Cromic 
of Dublin married a Miss Fish, and had two 
daughters and two sons, Michael, the heir, and 
John, in Holy Orders. Michael was for some 
time M.P. for Ballyshannon, and was created a 
baronet of Ireland on 25th July 1776, being then 
described as of Stacumine, Kildare. He married 
Gertrude, only surviving daughter and heiress of 
Ford Lambert, fifth Earl of Cavan. She died 
3rd May 1796, in her 'thirtieth year, leaving one 
son, William Lambert Cromie, and a daughter, 
who married Witney Melbourne West, Esq. 

Philemon Pownoll is described in his bank- 
ruptcy notice as of Piccadilly, London, banker, 

z Church Street (late Mr. Hadwen's Bank). This was the second time 
in the history of the 6nn that they occupied the premises of bankrupt 
bankers. Picton (" Memorials of Liverpool,'* vol. ii. p. 158) says 
the concern was discontinued about i8z8. This was not so. Felix 
Yaniewicz was called to Edinburgh to conduct the Gentlemen's Con- 
certs, but his partner, Weiss, continued for many years as sole pro- 
prietor of the firm at z Church Street. He appears at the same place 
in the directory for 1845. His will was proved at Chester ist July 
1853. But an offshoot of the business arose before 1832. This was 
their principal assistant, James Smith, who acquired part of the busi- 
ness, and opened premises at 67 Lord Street, and in this year of grace 
1905 the premises and business of James Smith A; Son are known to 
every musical Liverpudlian. Felix Yaniewicz had a son of the same 
name, who was a dentist in Bold Street, and who in 1849 was Presi- 
dent of the Liverpool Library. 



but he is not to be found in any London direc- 
tory between 1790 and iSoo. 1 

He had interests in several Liverpool firms. 
A meeting was called for 9th April 1 802 at the 
offices of Messrs. Lace & Hassall, Liverpool, of 
the "Creditors of the several firms wherein Mr. 
Pownoll was lately a partner." 

Of Isaac Hartman all that is known is that 
he was a merchant, having estates in the West 

On the affairs of the bank becoming involved 
Sir Michael Cromie escaped to France, where he 
lived many years. As his son, William Lambert, 
succeeded to the baronetcy in 1824, it is reason- 
able to suppose that Sir Michael died in that 

Sir William had married in 1816 Anne Rachel, 
only child of Sir William Hicks, Bart., but died 
s.p. in 1841, when the title became extinct. The 
entailed estates went to Rev. William Cromie of 
Ardmorance, co. Mayo, son of Sir Michael's 
brother John, who had married Emily Juliana 
Browne, daughter of Lord Kilmaine. 

The other partners were not so fortunate. A 

1 It is a very uncommon name, and in the endeavours to trace him 
correspondence was entered into with A. S. Dyer, Esq., of 98 Con- 
stantine Road, Hampstead, N.W., who kindly sent a pedigree of the 
Pownoll family, showing Philemon Pownolls from 1608 to 1780, the 
last named being Captain Philemon Pownoll, who was slain 151(1 
June 1780 aboard the Apollo, which was in pursuit of a French 
frigate. But no further progress has been made. 





v ; ; x a 
I 4^ 


commission of bankruptcy was issued, 9th March 
1802, against Philemon Pownoll, but it was not 
until 1 2th April 1808 that bankruptcy was 
effected in the case of Isaac Hartman, " late of 
Liverpool, banker, but now a prisoner in the 
King's Bench (late partner with Sir Michael 
Cromie, Bart., and Philemon Pownoll)." Affairs 
dragged on with the usual slowness. No men- 
tion is anywhere made as to the amount of the 
liabilities, but sundry dividends were paid on 
Philemon Pownoll's estate, the final one being 
1 5th January 1813. Hartman, on his bank- 
ruptcy, made an offer of 8s. in the ;, which does 
not appear to have been accepted, as in the 
following year his creditors again met to con- 
sider " the nature of the proposition made by 
Isaac Hartman to settle with them." l 

The notes issued by this ephemeral bank are 
very well executed. On the left, at the top, is a 
vignette of the Liverpool Town Hall, on the 
right boldly ornate lettering, " Liverpool Bank." 
So far as the writer knows they are of two 
denominations only, one guinea and ten guineas, 
and for each the letterpress is different. In case 
of the one guinea it reads, " I promise to pay 

1 Living, a* he did, under the privilege* of the rules of the King'i 
Bench, the creditor* had no power to compel him to give up hit 
property. It retted entirely with the debtor whether he chose to 
compromise with hit creditors, or to lire in security on what property 
was left to him. 


the Bearer on demand " ; in that of the ten 
guinea, " I promise to pay Mr. or 

Bearer on Demand.'* The author has two 
specimens of the guinea note, each dated 23rd 
February 1801, and the signatories to the notes 
must have been kept well employed on that day, 
for one is numbered 122, and the other 4226. 

Beneath the vignette on the ten-guinea note it 
is stated that it was engraved by Yates, Liverpool. 
This is Samuel Yates, whose shop in Lord Street 
was next door to this bank. The firm later 
became the well-known one of Yates & Hess, 
stone, seal, and copperplate engravers. Many of 
the notes are signed, on behalf of the partners, 
by George Browne, who has been surmised to 
be identical with the father of Mrs. Hemans. 
This appears to be without sufficient foundation. 
Rather more probable it is that he was one of the 
scions of the house of Kilmaine, into which Sir 
Michael Cromie's brother John had married. On 
the other hand, we are well assured that the 
J. King who signed some of the notes is Joseph 
King, bookkeeper and accountant, whose " Interest 
Tables " are largely used in the mercantile world 
of to-day. 



Richard Hanly " Muck Corporation of Sephton " " Record* of a 
Liverpool Fireside " Merchant and then banker Deed of 
assignment to creditors. 

THE bank which Richard Hanly opened was 
situate in Renshaw Street. He himself had been 
brought up as a banker's clerk. The first public 
appearance he made is recorded in the Minutes 
of the " Mock Corporation of Sephton" ("Sefton," 
by CarOe and Gordon, Longmans, 1893), where 
under date 3rd July 1791 the entry appears, 
p. 337 "Visitor: Mr. Richard Hanly of Liver- 
pool, Banker's Clerk. After dinner Mr. Alder- 
man Newsham proposed Mr. Richard Hanly to 
become a Member of this ancient Corporation, 
which, being seconded by Alderman Banner, he 
was admitted accordingly, and drank his ale at 
one gallant tip." He was son of Captain Richard 
and Jane Hanly. The latter was daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Askew of Cartmel. Mrs. 
Askew died 6th April 1789. The name of 
Captain Richard Hanly's father is unknown : 


his mother died iyth December 1794, in her 
eighty-first year, her husband having predeceased 
her. She had also a daughter, who was married, 
6th June 1775, to Captain Parry, in the West 
Indian trade. In this trade also, a euphemism 
for the slave trade, was Captain Richard Hanly. 
As early as 1770 we find him recorded as captain 
of the Liberty at Barbados, with 447 slaves from 
Bonny. He was a very prominent member of 
that " Liverpool Fireside " whose records have 
been preserved from 1776 to 1781. They fanci- 
fully described themselves in their proclamation 
as " The President and Members of the Society, 
deputed by jEolus to sell winds at the Port of 
Liverpool, at their office, Sign of ' The Three 
Tuns,' in Strand Street." l 

On 25th March 1776 an entry runs, "Captain 

1 The author has been enabled by the kindness of Cyril Lockett, 
Esq., to inspect this volume. The Society was almost entirely com. 
posed of captains of vessels, slavers, and privateers, with a minute lay 
element of superior tradesmen in the neighbourhood. Definite sums, 
which duly went for refreshment of the members, were fixed for fair 
winds. Another source of income was the subscription of each 
member of is. 6d. to celebrate his birthday. A list of the birthdays 
(the year, however, being omitted) is given of ninety-two members. 
Likewise each new suit of clothes, or single garment, had tribute laid 
on it. 

The hostess of the "Three Tuns," at 31 Strand Street, was Mary 
Catherwood. In that very rare volume, "Williamson's Liverpool 
Memorandum Book for 1753," occurs, among the list of captains 
in the West India trade, the name of Alexander Caterwood as master 
of a vessel. It is suggested that the widow of a former skipper would 
be likely to obtain the support of his former associates and their 


Richard Hanly has paid for a fair wind 33. May 
he prosper. Sailed this day." It must have 
been an amazing sight to see these rough priva- 
tcersmcn, decked out in all their finery, meeting 
it their "Club" at the close of each voyage. 
Captain Hanly's taste was mild compared with 
that of many members. His suits were simple 
in colour, " green suit of cloaths," " chocolate 
coloured clothes," "blue clothes," "sage green 
clothes with white silk." Other gentlemen pre- 
sent sported garments of all the colours of the 
rainbow, " crimson clothes,*' sky-blue, maroon, 
&c. One gentleman had " blue coat, with hell-fire 
waistcoat, and thunder and lightning breeches," 
another, " brown coat, with black collar and 
yellow buttons, velvet breeches and waistcoat.'* 

Captain Hanly's birthday was celebrated each 
7th September, but an entry runs under date 
I4th September 1779: "The gentlemen present 
have this day drank Captain Richard Hanly's 
health for his birthday 7th inst., and a speedy 
release to him from his present confinement in 

He was not kept long, however, for we find his 
reappearance at the club duly noted on ist June 
1780. When on shore he lived at 9 Williamson 
Square, showing him to be possessed of some of 
this world's goods. 

When he died has not been traced, but by 


1790 Mrs. Hanly appears as a widow. She died 
26th May 1 809. He had three sons: ( i ) Richard, 
the subject of this notice; (2) Thomas Askew 
Hanly, who became an attorney, with his office 
in 1796 at 9 Elbow Lane, and in 1800 at 
3 Marshall Street, Lord Street, and living with 
his mother in Houghton Street : he disappears 
from mention by 1 807 ; (3) Francis, the youngest, 
who died loth February 1800 at his brother's 
house in Renshaw Street, aged 23. 

He had also a daughter, Jane, who married, 
7th April 1807, Thomas Payne of Orrell. 

Richard Hanly, after the death of his father, 
commenced business as a merchant at 28 Renshaw 

He married, 3rd November 1794, a Miss 
Stuart. By 1803 he is described as a banker. 
But on 8th October 1807 he executed a deed of 
assignment in favour of his creditors, and two 
years later a first dividend was declared on his 
estate. Other dividends were paid, the last noted 
being in 1818. He retired to Orrell, where, on 
1 4th June 1810, his wife died, aged 40, and here 
he himself died, 3rd February 1820. 




Thomas Ley land Dillon & Ley land Lottery prize Christopher 
Bullin -Leyland, Clarkes, & Roscoe Walton Hall Thomas 
Leyland elected Mayor Slave trade Leyland & Bullins John 
Naylor King Street Death of Thomas Leyland Will Char- 
acter Richard Leyland Corporation bank account Partners 
of Leyland & Bullins Amalgamation with North and South 
Wale* Bank Limited. 

THE creator of this noted bank was Thomas 
Leyland, born in 1752. His father was Richard 
Leyland of Knowsley, of whom nothing is known. 
As early as 1774 Thomas Leyland was in busi- 
ness with Gerald Dillon as a partner, under the 
style of Dillon & Leyland, at the lower end of 
Water Street. They were in the Irish trade, 
dealing in oats, peas, wheat, oatmeal, bacon, hogs 1 
lard, &c. They had a moderate but progressive 
business, but in 1776 they had a stroke of luck. 
They drew a prize of 20,000 in the lottery. 
Under date 27th December 1776, Williamson's 
Advertiser gives it thus: "No. 52,717 drawn on 
Saturday last a prize of 20,006 is the property 

of Messrs. Dillon & Leyland, merchants in this 



town." l Profiting by his good fortune, Ley land, 
on 1 4th May of the following year, married at 
St. Thomas's Church, Ellen, daughter of the late 
Edward Bridge. He appears to have taken a 
house in Houghton Street, then a residential 

The following year, 1778, Christopher Bullin, 
a Staffordshire ware merchant, at that time resi- 
dent in Mathew Street, with his warehouse in 
York Street, became bankrupt. He formerly 
resided in Duke Street, and afterwards at the 
centre of the pottery business, Shaw's Brow (now 
William Brown Street). He had married Mar- 
garet, Thomas Leyland's sister, and Leyland 
appears to have had a great regard for the 
members of this family. Bullin appears to have 
owned the house in Duke Street, with the ware- 
houses extending along York Street to Henry 
Street. Whether Leyland, at the enforced sale 
in 1778, bought these premises is not known, but 
certainly a little later they were* in his hands, and 
here he resided for many years. 

In 1779 we find Dillon & Leyland taking a 
two-sixteenth share in the privateer Enterprise of 
F. Ingram & Co. (see Staniforth, Ingram, & Co.), 

1 In the MS. "Records of a Liverpool Fireside," 1775-81, this 
news was given at the meeting held lyA December 1776, but the 
number of the ticket there given is 44,696. Under the date zist 
December the same number is given in Gore's " Annals of Liverpool," 
but the names of the fortunate recipients are not specified. 


and they supplied the beef, pork, &c., for the 

In 1780 Thomas Ley land was elected to the 
Chamber of Commerce, and on 3Oth September 
of that year he dissolved partnership with Gerald 

The scope of his business, now in Nova Scotia, 
Liverpool, increased after this, and by 1788 we 
find him a large trader in olive oil from Spain, 
Peruvian bark, sherry, Tent & Carlow wines in 
butt and hogshead, Ross ox mess beef in tierces, 
mess pork in barrels, butter, hides, oats, and 
white herrings in barrels. Later on he embarked 
largely in the African slave trade, and amassed 
huge sums as his profits on this cruel traffic. 
When in the midst of his largest enterprises 
in this direction, and consequent gains, he, in 
1802, entered into partnership with the existing 
bank of Clarkes & Roscoe. It was a strange 
coalition : the successful slaver and the con- 
sistent opponent of slavery ! Be that as it 
may, it nevertheless was a powerful help to 
Clarkes & Roscoe, help both material and in- 
tellectual, for no keener business brain than 
Thomas Leyland's was then in Liverpool, and 
his wealth was patent. 

It has been mentioned before that Leyland 
had acquired the property at the corner of Duke 
Street and York Street. His counting-house 


was behind this in Henry Street, and from here 
he conducted his large concerns. On 6th Sep- 
tember 1802 appeared an advertisement that 
Walton Hall, formerly the home of the Ather- 
tons, an old Liverpool family who had recently 
migrated to Ludlow, " a Residence admirably 
suited for a commercial Gentleman of the first 
importance," was for sale. Leyland rightly con- 
sidered that he filled the requisite condition, and 
so promptly bought the estate. Previously to 
this he had been co-opted, 5th October 1796, 
a member of the Town Council, and the same 
year was elected Bailiff". In 1798 he was chosen 
as Mayor. At the period when such honours 
as the town could offer were at his disposal, 
Thomas Leyland was extending vastly his opera- 
tion in the African slave trade, and acquired a 
spendid income from this source. His partners 
in this business were his nephew, Richard Bullin, 
and Thomas Molyneux, but in one venture his 
partner was William Brown. The well-armed 
African traders in many instances carried letters 
of marque, and increased their profits by capturing 
the ships of national enemies. 

In 1802 he entered on the profession of a 
banker, becoming senior in the then existing firm 
of Clarkes & Roscoe. He quitted them suddenly, 
the circular announcing the dissolution being 
dated 3ist December 1806, and commenced 




1 J) 




business as a banker on loth January 1807 on 
his own account in York Street, in a building 
separate from, but adjacent to, his office in 
Henry Street. The same year he endeavoured 
to sell the Duke Street and Henry Street pro- 
perty, from which one may hazard the specula- 
tion that henceforward Thomas Leyland might 
be known as a banker rather than as a merchant. 
There was then no sale of the property, nor for 
many years after, for in 1815 we find it again 
offered for sale. The title of the new firm was 
Leyland & Bullin, the partner being his nephew, 

In 1809 an event took place which had a very 
important bearing on the after proprietorship 
of the bank. This was the marriage, at Walton, 
on 28th September, of Dorothy, daughter of the 
late Christopher Bullin and niece of Thomas 
Leyland, to John Nay lor of Hartford Hill, 
Cheshire, whose uncle, Thomas Nay lor, was 
Mayor in 1 796, and during whose year of office 
the present supporters to the arms of the city 
were granted by George III., and added to the 
arms of the town. 

About this time his other nephew, Christopher 
Bullin, was admitted to partnership, and the title 
of the firm now became LEYLAND & BULLINS, 
a title borne proudly and unsmirched for ninety- 
four years, until, in 1901, under the pressure 


of modern tendencies, the bank amalgamated with 
the North and South Wales Bank Limited. 

In 1814 Thomas Leyland was again elected 
Mayor. During the hard times of the peace 
which followed after the battle of Waterloo, 
when the industries which had been necessary 
in time of war failed for want of occupation, 
when the inflated prices and consequent high 
wages ceased, and the working population felt 
the revulsion most, there was no more strenuous 
supporter of the rights of the people against 
the oppression of the middleman than Thomas 
Leyland. Whether he remembered his own early 
struggles, or whether his sense of justice was 
keen, we do not know. But for the engrosser, 
the forestaller, the regrater 1 he had no mercy. 
He, during his mayoralty of the memorable 
year 1814-15, made his name a terror to these 
evil-doers. Thomas Leyland was accustomed 
to visit the markets personally, and brought to 
justice those guilty of these offences. 

Christopher Bullin does not seem to have 
taken any part in the slave ventures or in local 
political life. But it was quite different with 
his elder brother, Richard. As mentioned above, 

1 An engrosser was one who bought large quantities of market 
supplies in order to influence the price in the open market; the 
forestaller, one who bought provisions before they came to market 
in order to raise the price ; the regrater was one who bought and 
sold provisions in the same market, thus raising the price. 



he had shares with his uncle in the slavers, and 
with him he had cravings for public life. Hence 
we find him co-opted on 4th January 1815 to 
the Common Council. 

For a great number of years he and Chris- 
topher had lived together at a house, then 
12 Bold Street, a little above the Lyceum. But 
by 1810 Christopher Bullin had removed to 
Parliament Street, occupying one of the large 
houses opposite St. James* Church. By 1815 
Richard had acquired a residence at Fazakerley, 
and he is described as of that place in the 
nomination for the Council. It is typical of 
the intensely local nature of the directories of 
the period that they do not register him as 
of Fazakerley till 1825. 

In 1816 Leyland & Bullins removed to their 
new premises in King Street. Their circular, 
dated 28th January of that year, is as follows: 
" Leyland & Bullins beg leave to inform their 
friends that the banking establishment at pre- 
sent carried on in York Street will be removed 
to their new premises in King Street on 
Monday, 5th February." On i8th May of the 
same year a presentation of a piece of plate, 
value ^500, modelled and ornamented after 
the celebrated Roman vase at Warwick Castle, 
was made to Thomas Leyland by a number 
of Liverpool merchants, William Brown (after- 


wards Sir William Brown, Bart.), as represen- 
tative merchant, making the presentation. 

When Canning, then member for Liverpool, 
returned from fulfilling the post of Ambassador 
to Madrid, he was appointed President of the 
Board of Control. This necessitated his re- 
election for Liverpool. Mr. Ley land was ap- 
proached by the Whigs, but declined to stand. 
In spite of this he was nominated, and the 
election dragged on for four and a half days, 
with the result: Canning, 1260; Leyland, 732. 
Canning characterised it as " a struggle with 
an invisible phantom." 

About 1817 Anfield House seems to have 
been acquired by Christopher Bullin as a 
country residence. This many years later was 
the residence of George Arkle, a subsequent 
partner in the firm. 

In 1820 Thomas Leyland was elected Mayor 
for the third time, and in the following year 
Richard Bullin was honoured with the mayoralty, 
after a four days' contest. He was appointed 
J.P. for the county on 2nd February 1824. 

On 29th May 1827 Thomas Leyland died, 
aged seventy-five years. His will, dated ist 
April 1822, and proved at Chester, nth 
January 1828, made the following provisions: 
After specific bequests to his widow, Ellen, his 
nephews Richard and Christopher Bullin, and 


others, including some few charitable bequests, 
he willed that his property should go to the 
lawful male heirs of his nephews Richard and 
Christopher, and failing issue to the male heirs 
of his niece, Dorothy Naylor, Thomas, John, 
and Richard Naytor. The value of the estate 
was sworn under 600,000. From the will we 
gather that he had bought Fazakerley Hall, 
offered for sale at the bankruptcy of Joseph 
Hadwen (7.1?.). He also bequeathed 100 to 
Professor Smyth of Cambridge, son of Thomas 
Smyth (y.v.). 

Thomas Leyland was both J.P. and D.L. 
for the county of Lancaster. He was, to 
quote "The Old Stager," "a man of amazing 
shrewdness, sagacity, and prudence. . . . We 
will not compare him to the animals which 
are said *to see the wind,* but, by some intui- 
tion, instinct, or presentiment, call it what you 
will, he seemed always to have a warning of 
any coming storm in the money market, and 
trimmed and steered the ship, and took in sail 
accordingly. He was a fine-looking man, with 
what some thought a stern and forbidding, but 
what we should call a firm and decided, look." 

Though possessed of great wealth, it was 
currently reported that he was extremely par- 
simonious, and the squibs, during the parlia- 
mentary elections for which Thomas Leyland 


was nominated, but for which he declined to 
stand, unhesitatingly attribute his reluctance to 
sheer stinginess, which grudged the large expenses 
then necessary. 

But he had no sympathy with hole-and-corner 
work with reference to the Corporation finance. 
To his credit be it said that during his second 
tenure of the office of Mayor in 1815 he pub- 
lished for the first time the Corporation accounts, 
stating that the Mayor should lay before the bur- 
gesses an account of their money transactions. 
He also then caused the accounts for the seventeen 
years preceding to be published for their perusal. 

Contemporaries credit him with a saying, which 
the writer's memory tells him, though unable to 
give the reference, was used by one greater than he 
(? Talleyrand), but which his extensive experience 
as thrice Mayor of Liverpool would bring home 
to him : " Many of those you invite soon forget 
it : those you don't invite, never forget it." 

The business was now conducted under the 
old style by Richard and Christopher Bullin. 
The Gazette of 3Oth June 1827 contains licence 
and authority to Richard Bullin, Esq., of War- 
breck House, Fazakerley, to assume the name 
and bear the arms of Leyland in compliance with 
the conditions of the will of his late maternal 
uncle, Thomas Leyland, bearing date ist April 



Christopher Bullin still abstained from any 
public life, but Richard was keenly interested in 
local matters. At the contest in 1827 for the 
mayoralty between Nicholas Robinson and 
Thomas Col ley Porter, when bribery of the most 
extensive kind was openly and unblushingly prac- 
tised by both sides, it was stated that he sub- 
scribed ;6ooo to Nicholas Robinson's expenses. 

In 1835 currency was given to a story in 
several of the Liverpool papers, which I repro- 
duce in Sir James Picton's words : " The banking 
account of the Corporation up to this time had 
been kept with the banking house of Messrs. 
Leyland & Bullins. At a meeting of the Finance 
Committee, held on June I9th, Alderman Ley- 
land announced that he would make no further 
advances to the Corporation, the account then 
standing to their debit in the sum of 12,800. 
Some rather high words ensued. Alderman 
Sandbach, Conservative though he might be, 
was jealous for the honour of the Corporation, 
and immediately signed a cheque on his bankers, 
Messrs. Hey wood & Co., for the amount. The 
day following the account of the Corporation 
was transferred from Leylands & Co. to Messrs. 
Heywood, where it has ever since remained." ! 

It is a very pretty story, and gives doubtless 
the reason why the Corporation account was 

1 ' Memorial* of Liverpool," vol. i. 461, ed. 1875. 


closed with Leyland & Bullins, but it does not 
quite fit with facts. 

The Corporation account was with Gregsons 
and Clay till their suspension in 1807. After 
that no public mention is made of the account, 
that the author is aware of, till the Parliamen- 
tary Enquiry into the Corporation was held in 
1833. From that report we find that the Cor- 
poration had accounts with both A. Heywood, 
Sons, & Co. and Leyland & Bullins, and that 
the indebtedness was fairly equally distributed. 
On 1 8th October 1832 the balance due by the 
Corporation to A. Heywood, Sons, & Co. was 
16,573, os. 9d., and at the end of twelve 
months it had increased to 29,778, 93. 6d. 
For the same dates the balances due to Ley- 
land & Bullins were 16,639, i6s., and 
29,898, 1 8s. 6d. Evidently, therefore, the 
Corporation had extensive dealings with Hey- 
woods' prior to 1835.* 

1 There is a curious error in Dairies' "History of Lancashire," vol. 
iv. p. 134, London, 1836. The amount of indebtedness to Hey- 
woods' is given as 29,898, 195. 6d., and to Leyland's $9,677, 8s. 
But if the column in which these figures appear is added up, there 
will be found a trifling difference of 19,898, i8s. nd. As this is, 
within a few pence, the indebtedness to Leyland's, it appears probable 
that the account from which Baines took his figures originally stood 

Due to Heywoods" . , . 29,778 9 6 
,, Leyland's . . . 29,898 18 6 

Together . . 5^677 8 o 
and that Baines took the latter two amounts instead of the first two. 



The widow of Thomas Ley-land, Ellen, died 
on 1 8th January 1839, and Richard Leyland 
then took up his residence at Walton Hall, 
where he died unmarried on the ist December 
1844. Christopher Bullin retired from the 
firm in 1847, and died, also unmarried, at his 
residence, Upper Parliament Street, 4th Sep- 
tember 1849. He had assumed by Royal 
Licence, on 8th May 1845, the name and arms 
of Leyland. 

The business of the bank was then continued 
by the surviving partners, Thomas Ley-land's 
grand-nephews, John Naylor and Richard Chris- 
topher Naylor. Their mother, Dorothy, died 
8th December 1856, aged seventy-five years. 

Richard Christopher Naylor retired in 1852, 
and John Naylor then took into partnership 
George Arkle (who, born 28th October 1814, 
had entered the bank as an apprentice, became 
managing partner, retired in 1879, a d died 
1 3th December 1885), and in 1867 Benjamin 
Arkle, who died 22nd September 1891. 

In 1879 John Naylor admitted his three sons, 
Christopher John Naylor (who in 1891 succeeded 
to the Leyland entailed estates, and took the 
name of Leyland in substitution for that of 
Naylor), Rowland Edward Leyland Naylor, and 
John Naylor, now a director of the North and 
South Wales Bank, and also John Willan 


Heblethwaite (whose ancestor, Captain Heble- 
thwaite, finds mention in the " Records of a 
Liverpool Fireside"), who like the Arkles had 
entered the bank as an apprentice, and who 
died in 1900. John Naylor died on the ijth 
July 1889, and in 1895 the head office of the 
bank was removed to new premises at 36 Castle 
Street, and in May 1901, as before stated, the 
bank was amalgamated with the North and 
South Wales Bank Limited. 



John Aipinall Ac Son Transition from tea-dealer* to banker* 
Bankruptcy James Aspinall, banker James Aipinall & Son 
Central Bank of Liverpool. 

THE first mention of this firm in the local 
directory is in 1796, when, under the title of 
John Aspinall & Sons, Grocers, they had their 
shop at 5 Derby Square, with a warehouse at 
40 Castle Street. The site of the Derby Square 
premises was later on occupied by Thomas 
Kaye for the Liverpool Courier printing works, 
and is now covered by the head office of the 
North and South Wales Bank Limited. 

They had in 1793 a shop at the top of Dale 
Street, but at the latter end of that year removed 
to the corner of Derby Square and Castle Street. 
The firm was composed of John Aspinall, the 
father, and James and William, the sons. On 
6th February 1797 they notified the public that 
they " have also opened the Grocery and Tea 
Warehouse in Castle Street lately occupied by 
Mr. [James] Wright." This was numbered 16 
in 1796. It is noteworthy that in several of 


their public notices they describe their principal 
business premises as situate " corner of Market 
Place," although the newer name, " Derby 
Square/' had been in use for many years. As 
was the custom, they lived over their premises 
in Castle Street. But on 2nd September 1796 
James Aspinall married, at Leyland, Margaret 
Broxup of Euxton, near Chorley, and he took 
up his abode above the one of their business 
premises which was about where Messrs. Nixon 
and Thew's premises now stand. To this tea, 
&c., business gradually attached itself a banking 
business, and the two seem to have prospered, 
for in 1802-3 we find that they built " several 
spacious and elegant stone dwellings " on the 
west side of the north end of Everton Terrace. 
In one of these John Aspinall, the senior of the 
firm, went to reside. 

By 1811 James Aspinall had bought and was 
residing at No. 2 8 Clare Street, corner of Isling- 
ton, which had some land attached to it. His 
mother died at Everton on 2yth May of this 
year, aged 7 1 , and his wife did not long survive, 
dying 2oth July 1813, in her thirty-ninth year. 

On 9th August 1813 the Aspinalls circularised 
their friends : 

"John, James, and William Aspinall beg to inform 
their friends and the public that a dissolution of partner- 
ship has this day taken place in their house, and that the 


Grocery business will be continued by William Aspinall 
only, on his own account, at the established shop in the 
Market Place, corner of Derby Square. The banking 
business will be continued by John and James Aspinall 
only, under the firm of John Aspinall & Son, at their 
present situation in Castle Street, corner of Harrington 
Street, where all accounts of their late concern will be 
received and paid." 

James Aspinall did not remain long a widower, 
as he on i2th August 1814 married, at Edgehill, 
Miss Hardwick of Everton Terrace. 

But the conclusion of the Napoleonic wars, 
pricking the bubble of credit, brought woe to 
many, amongst others to the Aspinalls. 

A commission of bankruptcy, dated 27th June 
1816, was issued against "John Aspinall and 
James Aspinall of Liverpool, bankers." The 
Liverpool Mercury thus announced it the follow- 
ing day : " Amongst the innumerable melancholy 
tokens of the times, we are concerned to state 
the stoppage of the bank of Messrs. James (should 
be John) Aspinall & Son of this town.'* The 
Receiver appointed was Harmood Banner, 1 to 
whom thus fell his first appointment as liqui- 
dator of a bank. 

I He hid previously been in partnership with hi brother-in-law 
under the firm of Banner & Billinge, porter dealers, 8 Lower Castle 
Street. He married, 151)1 October 1808, at St. George's Church, 
Anne, daughter of Thomas Billinge, printer, publisher, and pro- 
prietor of the Liverpool AJveriiitr. He commenced business as an 
accountant in October 1814. 


When going into their assets it was found 
that their houses in Everton had been conveyed 
to their London correspondents, Fry & Chapman, 
doubtless as security for advances made. But 
James Aspinall had a life interest in two farms 
and other lands, with three cottages, at Euxton, 
near Chorley, all of which probably came to him 
through his first wife. He had also his house 
and land in Clare Street. The firm held two 
houses in Castle Street, Corporation lease, partly 
in use as the bank, and sundry small properties. 

The liquidation dragged on for many years, 
several small dividends being paid, the first of 
2s. 6d. in the early in 1817. John Aspinall 
died 3rd February 1823, aged 75. In addition 
to his two sons he had daughters. The eldest 
married, 27th October 1799, Edward Evans; 
another, Mary, died unmarried 28th May 1834. 

James Aspinall reverted to his old business 
as a tea and spice dealer, with the business place 
in Castle Street, at the corner of Harrington 
Street, and continued to live in Clare Street. 
This lasted for some years, until in 1823 he 
again blossomed out as a " banker," the banking 
office being in Harrington Street. By 1827 he 
had removed the bank to Temple Court, whence 
in 1828 he respectfully acquainted his friends 
that owing to the stoppage of his London cor- 
respondents, Messrs. Fry & Chapman, he had 


arranged with Messrs. Drewctt & Fowler, 
bankers, London, for future business. His own 
career, however, shortly received a check, for 
in the Gazette for nth June 1832 he is 
declared a bankrupt. 1 But in June 1833 this 
bankruptcy was annulled. Then a circular 
from Temple Court, loth July 1833, notifies us 
that "James and Broxup Aspinall respectfully 
inform their friends that they have commenced 
business together, under the firm of James 
Aspinall & Son, and that the account is with 
Sir James Esdaile & Co., bankers, London." 

The joint-stock mania was very prevalent at 
this time. Banks were springing up in every 
direction, people were readily subscribing capital, 
and every one was to make his or her fortune 
in a few years. The Aspinalls thought that 
they too would invite the public to share 
their good fortune, so the Central Bank of 
Liverpool was duly floated on ist August 
1836, with a capital of ^50,000 nominal in 
10 shares, with its offices in Temple Court, 
and its manager James Aspinall. But even 
the credulous public of that date did not quite 
swallow the bait. Thus by 4th March 1837 the 
amount of the paid-up capital was only 5790. 

i On lyth July 1831 there had been a burglary committed on the 
Temple Court premises, whereby A<pinall' lost 800 in cash, and bills 
to a Urge amount. 


Their former London agents, Esdaile & Co., 
collapsed in 1837, but the Central Bank of 
Liverpool appears to have transferred its agency 
to Lubbock & Co. ere this. By 1839 the 
bank has disappeared from the directory, and 
the writer has been unable to trace when or 
how it vanished. The name of James Aspinall 
is also absent. The name of his son is given, 
but by 1841 that too has gone. 



MOM, Dales, & Rogers Thomas Most Thorn** and John Moss John 
MOM Formation of the bank Partners MOM, Dale, Rogers, 
and Moss Erection of bank building Most, Rogers, & Moss 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway Thomas Edwards-MoM and 
Gilbert Winter Moss North-Western Bank London City and 
Midland Bank Limited. 

THE founder of this bank was John Moss, 
whose grandfather was John Moss of Hurst 
House, and his father Thomas Moss of Whis- 
ton, both of which places are situate between 
Liverpool and Prescot. The latter came to 
Liverpool and was apprenticed to Thomas Case, 1 

1 Thomas Case was an eminent merchant of Liverpool. He was 
son of Thomas Case of Red Hazles, near Prescot, who had married 
Margaret, daughter of William Clayton, sometime M.P. for Liverpool. 
He was in partnership with his aunt, Sarah Clayton, as coal merchants 
under the style of Clayton, Case, & Co. He also, in 1774, was in 
partnership with William Gregson as insurance brokers under the 
style of Gregson, Case, & Co. The bankruptcy of the coal firm early 
in 177! put an end to the insurance partnership. He married, 
5th December 1776, Anna, the eldest daughter of the late John Ashton. 
His aunt, Sarah Clayton, was a very well-known Liverpool lady, who 
gave her name to the square she resided in. A contiguous street 
is Cases Street. She died May 1779. Thomas Case, whose name 
figures on the first African Committee of 1777, had two sons, both 
merchants of Liverpool, Thomas, afterwards Alderman Case, and 
John Ashton Case. 


25th May 1762, and was enrolled as a freeman 
in 1770. 

He commenced business as a timber merchant, 
his first firm being Taylor, Moss, & Co., the 
partnership in which was dissolved I5th April 
1776, Thomas Moss continuing in the old yards 
at the east side of Salthouse Dock and bottom 
of Lord Street. 

On 9th May 1777 he married at St. Peter's 
Church, Liverpool, Jane, only child of Thomas 
Arrowsmith, who was descended from the 
Cottingham family. 1 

In 1778 the new partnership he had formed 
under the title of Thomas Moss & Co. was 
dissolved, and he commenced a fresh partnership 
under the title of Moss, Sutton, & Co. But this 
was of brief duration, as in the following year 
it was dissolved, his partners, James Sutton and 
Edward Lowe, continuing the business. In 1780 
he had acquired a new timber yard on the east 
side of St. George's Dock. In 1778 he had 
purchased land on the road from Liverpool to 
Low Hill, contiguous to that owned by Richard 
Gildart. The streets, Moss Street and Gildart 
Street, sufficiently mark the locality. Moss Street 
was cut through the land about 1809. 

His name appears as the owner of a privateer 

1 Thomas Cottingham died at his mansion house at Ness, Cheshire, 
on iznd May 1783. 



xx, JOHN MOSS 191 

during the war with America. He also developed 
a business as general merchant, first in Paradise 
Street, where he also resided, but latterly in 
Mancsty Lane. Owing to the erection of the 
Gorcc Warehouses and Piazzas in 1793 his timber 
yard was removed to the west side of St. George's 

On 26th April 1796 he married, as second 
wife, Miss Griffies, the sister of William Roscoc's 

In 1803 he took into partnership his son John, 
the firm then becoming Thomas and John Moss. 
After living for some time in Rainford Gardens 
he had taken a house in the very fashionable 
St. Anne Street, and here he died, 5th February 

John Moss, who now succeeded to the various 
businesses, general merchant, shipowner, &c., 
was born in Rainford Gardens, where his father 
then resided, on i8th February 1782. On his 
attaining his majority he was, as stated above, 
taken into partnership with his father, and at the 
early age of twenty-three he was principal of 
extensive businesses. The timber business, how- 
ever, was not included in these. This was taken 
over by Thomas Moss's partner therein, Richard 
Houghton, who continued the business for 
many years, first at the old yard, west side of 
St. George's Dock, later in Hurst Street. 


In the same year, 1805, John Moss married 
on 3rd September, at the Collegiate Church, 
Manchester, Hannah Taylor, daughter of the 
late Thomas Taylor of Moston. 

In 1807 appeared an advertisement in Billinge's 
Advertiser which the author has always, rightly or 
wrongly, connected with the origin of Moss's 
Bank : 

"A gentleman, possessing a large disposable property, 
in correspondence with the very first house in London, 
would treat with one person, of known property, to 
establish a BANK at LIVERPOOL, upon the most solid 
and permanent basis, by which the Public will be 
guaranteed against any fortuitous event. Letters for 
A.B.Ci at the Post Office, Liverpool (post paid), from 
Principals, with real signatures, will be attended to, if 
connexion is deemed desirable. N.B. An active part 
is absolutely necessary, as that is the only motive for 
this advertisement." 

Whether the surmise be right or wrong, the 
quotation is interesting in itself, as showing 
the feeling that properly equipped banks were 
essential to the needs of the vastly expanding 
commerce of the town. 

But we have the fact that John Moss in this 
year opened a bank at 4 Exchange Buildings, 
under the title of Moss, Dales, & Rogers. It is 
not mentioned in the body of the directory for 
1807, but has a special entry in the appendix. 

ro R. N. (5* G. E. DALE 193 

The Dales were Roger Newton Dale, who had 
married on 9th March 1802 Margaret, sister of 
John Moss, and George Edward Dale, who on 
9th October 1804 had married Ellen, another 
sister of John Moss. They came from Heaton 
Norris, near Stockport. R. N. Dale was a 
member of the firm of Davies, Dale, & Co., 1 of 
Redcross Street, Liverpool, drysalters, who had 
their oil and paint warehouse in Redcross Street, 
and their manufactory at 44 Hunter Street. 
They were also, during the Napoleonic wars, 
privateer owners. R. N. Dale lived at Waver- 
tree, and died at his house there, 2 3rd February 
1809, aged 33. 8 

His brother, G. E. Dale, did not long survive 
him, as he died at his house in Rodney Street, 
9th January 1815.* He left several children. 

1 Early in 1808 Davies, Dale, & Co. dissolved partnership. Buiness 
was carried on at the old premises by James Davies and R. N. Dale 
under the style of James Davies & Co., while the other partner, 
Joseph Bancroft, entered into partnership with his brother-in-law, 
Joseph Dutton, under the style of Dutton & Bancroft. 

* His widow went to reside at Cheltenham, hut died at the house of 
her brother Henry in Wavertree, 151)1 May 1811. 

1 The widow went to Leamington, whence her second daughter, 
Ellen, was married, und September 1831, to Rev. Hugh Matthie, 
Rector of Worthenbury, Flints, surviving only to i8th July 1836. 
The eldest daughter, Sarah Jane, was also married at Leamington on 
und August 1833 to T. R. Woodward of Birkenhead. Mrs. Dale 
changed her residence to Farndon, Cheshire, where her youngest 
daughter, Hannah, died yth February 1836. Mrs. Dale herself died 
on i8th September of the same year at the house of her son-in-law, 
T. R. Woodward. 



The only son, Roger Newton Dale, died i8th 
September 1828, in the twentieth year of his age. 

The other partner was Edward Rogers. He 
was, it is believed, the son of Edward Rogers, a 
merchant of Liverpool, who also carried on an 
insurance and brokerage business, under the title 
of Rogers & Ripley. This latter firm was dis- 
solved 3 1st December 1785, and Edward Rogers 
carried on the business alone at 6 Change Alley. 
He married at Whitehaven, 29th December 
1778, a Miss Nicholson of that town, but she 
did not long survive, dying June 1782. 

To Edward Rogers belongs the distinction 
of being the originator in 1757 of the proposal 
for the formation of the Liverpool Library 
(the first circulating library in the kingdom), 
happily still flourishing. He died 1795. The 
son of Edward Rogers took up his residence 
in Everton, where he lived till about 1822, 
when he removed to 2 South Hunter Street, 
changing to St. Michael's Hill, Toxteth Park, 
about 1831, where he continued to reside after 
his retirement from the bank a few years 

On 5th September 1811 John Moss's younger 
brother, Henry, was married at Oldham to 
Hannah, second daughter of James Clegg of 
Bent, and the same year he was admitted a 
partner in the bank, which was now Moss, 






DALE, ROGERS, & Moss. In the same month 
was completed the building facing the Town 
Hall, at the end of Dale Street, which was 
the home of the bank until the private bank 
became a joint-stock concern in 1864, under 
the title of the North-Western Bank. The 
building was then reconstructed. 

The press notice on the present occasion was 
as follows : 

|6/A September iSll. 

"A small but very fine specimen of Doric archi- 
tecture, remarkably well executed in choice freestone, 
is now exhibited in the building just erected at the top 
of Dale Street, which is said to be intended for the 
banking house of Messrs. Moss, Dale, Rogers, & Co. 
Such structures as these, in the middle of a great town, 
contribute greatly to the credit of, and of course to the 
benefit of, the place in which they are erected ; whilst 
they reflect honour on the taste and spirit of their 

John Moss had lived for some time at Mossley 
Hill, but he had now acquired, and was resident 
at, the estate of Otterspool. Here in 1812-13 
he started an oil mill in partnership with George 
Forwood. 1 For many years there had been a 

1 George Forwood, ton of Lieutenant Forwood, R.N., and Faith, 
hit wife, wa* an exceedingly able man. He tried hit hand at various 
butinettet, wat agent for naval varnish, general merchant, insurance 
agent, and overseer for the poor. He wat father of George Peplow 
Forwood and Thomas Brittain Forwood, and grandfather of the late 
Sir Arthur B. Forwood, Bart., sometime Secretary to the Admiralty, 
and Sir William B. Forwood. 


mill on the shore. The Otterspool stream 
formed an embouchure, which had been im- 
proved by embankments. Hence barges had 
direct access to the mill. In 1780 the firm 
of Tate, Alexander, & Wilson enclosed a part 
of the strand of the river Mersey and erected 
a snuff mill. This was continued for many 
years, and was held under Thomas Tarleton 
on lease. In 1 8 1 6 John Moss purchased the 
interest of the lord of the manor (John 
Blackburn) in the strand in front of his 
property, and made further embankments. The 
oil mill was burnt down many years ago, but 
the embankments on a summer evening, " when 
softe is the sonne," make a delightful spot for 
rest and contemplation. Here Mersey is nearly 
at her widest, and the effect of the broad stretch 
of water, with the green and gentle slopes of 
Cheshire leading up to the background of the 
everlasting hills of Wales, the whole lighted 
up by a glorious sunset, is at once charming 
and restful. 

By the death of George Edward Dale in 
1815 the Dales dropped out of the title of 
the firm, which now became Moss, ROGERS, and 
Moss, and so continued till the thirties. 

On 2Oth January 1 8 1 6 John Moss was created 
J.P. for the county of Lancaster. In 1822 
he commenced, in conjunction with some of 

xn THE L. & M. RAILWAY 197 

the best known Liverpool men, the great task 
of endeavouring to obtain powers for the pro- 
jected undertaking, the Liverpool and Man- 
chester Railway. Co-operation with Manchester 
was sought and obtained, and at the first meeting 
of the Joint-Committee, held at George Ashby 
Pritt's office, John Moss was elected Chairman. 
This office he retained during the following 
three years, till, on his own recommendation 
in 1824, Mr. Charles Lawrence, then Mayor of 
Liverpool, was solicited to join the Committee 
and become its Chairman. The history of the 
conflict that took place, of the unworthy 
opposition of those who should have known 
better, and of the interests that had to be 
placated (the Bridgwater Trust took as its 
bribe shares to the extent of one-fifth of the 
undertaking), is out of place here. Suffice it 
to say that on the first attempt to obtain 
parliamentary sanction the Corporation of 
Liverpool, by objecting to the proposed com- 
pany taking land for its purposes, effectually 
stayed for a while the progress of the under- 
taking. 1 But in 1825 the Bill was passed 
through both Houses, and received the Royal 
assent. The first meeting of the proprietors 
was held in Liverpool on 29th May 1826, 

i Thoma* Creevejr in the * Creevey Paper*" plume* hiimclf on the 
fact that by hi* tactics he obtained thU result. He wa acting on 
behalf of hi* frimd, Lord Sefton. 


when fifteen directors were elected, three of 
whom were nominees of the Bridgwater Trust. 
At the first meeting of the directors on the 
following day, Charles Lawrence was elected 
Chairman, and John Moss Deputy-Chairman of 
the Company. 

Later on John Moss identified himself with 
other railway undertakings, and in 1831 was 
Chairman of the Liverpool and Birmingham 

His brother Henry contented himself with 
municipal matters, and was chosen a member 
of the Common Council 6th October 1824. 

Mercantile matters were not entirely forgotten. 
John Moss had some very large sugar plantations 
in the neighbourhood of Demerara. 

The bank continued to prosper, and obtained 
a fair share of public support. 

John Moss died 3rd October 1858, and was 
buried at St. Anne's, Aigburth. The land on 
which the church was built had been given by 
him. It was opened in 1837, and was embel- 
lished by his further gift of a painted glass 

His two sons, Thomas and Gilbert Winter 
Moss, who had been for some time associated 
with their father, now continued the bank. 

Two other sons of John Moss were Rev. John 
James Moss, sometime Vicar of Upton, Cheshire, 



who died in 1865, holding a living in Somerset- 
shire, and James Moss, who founded the extensive 
line of steamers known as the Moss Line. The 
former was the eldest son of the family. 

Thomas Edwards-Moss was the second son. 
He was born at Otterspool iyth July 1811. 
He was educated at Eton and Oxford. The 
first name in the roll of Captains of the Boats 
at Eton is that of Thomas Moss, as he then 
was. He married in 1847 Amy Charlotte, 
daughter and heiress of Richard Edwards of 
Roby, whose name, in addition to his own, 
he assumed by Royal Licence four years later. 
He took a great part in Liverpool parliamentary 
elections, being Chairman of the Constitutional 
Association. He became J.P. and D.L. for the 
county, and in 1868 was created a baronet by 
Lord Beaconsfield. He died 26th April 1890. 
He left two sons, John Edwards - Moss and 
Tom Cottingham Edwards-Moss. 1 The former 
succeeded to the baronetcy. He was born 

I The ichool and college career* of these men exhibit a striking 
example of hereditary rowing ability. Sir Thomas Edwards-Moit 
was Captain of the Boats in iSz8. His son John was captain in 
1869, and Tom in 1873-74. In the University races John rowed for 
Oxford in 1870 and 1871, but, as those were Goldie's years, his side 
was not successful. Tom rowed for Oxford in 1875-6-7-8, Oxford 
winning in 1875 and 1878, losing in 1876, whilst in 1177 occurred 
the only dead heat on record. Only a year or two ago Sir John had 
the pleasure of seeing his son John elected Captain of the Boats. In 
the chapel of Brasenose College there Is a window to the memory of 
T. C. Ed wards- Moss. 


25th October 1850, and married in 1873 
Margaret Everilda, daughter of Colonel John 
Ireland Blackburn of Hale Hall. 

The other son of John Moss interested in 
the bank was Gilbert Winter Moss. He was 
not much in evidence as a public character, 
but was greatly esteemed for his artistic tastes 
and charitable bent. Born 3ist March 1828, 
he was created a J.P. for Lancashire in 1850, 
and died 6th July 1899. 

In April 1864 the private bank was trans- 
formed into a joint-stock concern, under the 
title of the North - Western Bank, Thomas 
Edwards-Moss and Gilbert Winter Moss be- 
coming directors. The latter remained a director 
until the octopus-like tentacles of the London 
and Midland Bank clutched it in October 1897. 
Later on the latter bank became the London 
City and Midland Bank Limited. 




Joicph Hadwen Tea-dealer to banker Trantmiuion of bank-notrt 
to London Bankruptcy Ciaimt paid in foil. 

THE bank in Church Street, which was origi- 
nated by Joseph Hadwen, had its origin in 
the grocery and tea business. It was situate a 
little beyond the present premises of Bunncy's 
Limited. At the time when our earliest direc- 
tory was published, 1766, Joseph Hadwen, senior, 
had his place of business in Church Street, then, 
with this exception, a residential street. He is 
then described as clockmaker, grocer, and linen 
draper. Before 1796 he had retired to St. 
Anne Street, leaving the conduct of the busi- 
ness in the hands of his son, also Joseph Had- 
wen. They were members of the Society of 
Friends, who quite generally at this time were 
referred to as " the people called Quakers." 
Joseph Hadwen, senior, died jist July 1807, 
aged nearly 82. His son in the same year 
appeared publicly as a banker, the bank being 


conducted on the first floor, whilst the tea, 
&c., business was carried on on the ground floor. 
He also ceased to reside over the bank in 
Church Street, going to his father's former 
house in St. Anne Street. The bank progressed 
quietly for many years. In 1810 Joseph Had- 
wen took down a windmill which he owned in 
Hotham Street, and erected a charity school on 
the site. 

In 1823 Hadwen had a stroke of ill-luck. 
He had on hand 2095 ' m ld > l Bank of 
England notes, and forwarded them by the mail 
to be collected. An insight into the times is 
given us by the account of the incident. To 
avert suspicion as to the nature of the contents 
of the parcel the notes were not addressed to 
his London agents, Barclay, Bevan, & Co., Lom- 
bard Street, but to a druggist in the same 
street, to be by him handed to Barclay & Co. 
But on its arrival in London the contents were 
found to be metamorphosed into a collection 
of waste paper of all descriptions. 

The direful year of 1825 claimed as one 
of its victims Joseph Hadwen. His circular 
announcing the fact is noteworthy : 

"It is with much regret that I have to inform 
thee, that in consequence of the general pressure of 
the times, together with some recent failures, I have 
thought it desirable to have the advice of some dis- 


interested friends relative to the situation of my 

"In pursuance of their recommendation I have 
concluded upon suspending my payments, a measure 
truly distressing to my own feelings, particularly so in 
looking to the various embarrassments it may occasion. 

"What may remain to me after paying my creditors 
in full must depend upon management and circum- 
stances unforeseen. 


" CHVBCII Srmtrr, nt mtmtk, 24/^1 1*26." 

The liabilities were estimated at 120,000, 
but the assets were in such a liquid condition 
that dividends amounting to us. 6d. in the 
were paid to the creditors before twelve 
months were over. A large number of the 
members of the Society of Friends banked with 
Hadwen, many of those being leather and 
hide dealers. The creditors were so pleased 
with the favourable aspect of affairs that they 
presented the assignees of the estate with a 
piece of plate in recognition of their assiduity 
in winding up the estate. 

Among the properties belonging to Joseph 
Hadwen which were brought to the hammer 
were Fazakerley Hall, with outbuildings, gar- 
den, orchards and lands, amounting to 84 
acres, 3 roods, 10 poles, which was bought 
by Thomas Leyland ; the bank in Church 


Street, and hir. residence in St. Anne Street. 
The creditors were all paid in full. 

In December 1826 Joseph Had wen announced 
that he had gone into partnership with Eliza- 
beth Fielden, under the style of Hadwen and 
Fielden, as tea and coffee dealers at the " Three 
Canisters" in New Scotland Road, near Great 
Nelson Street, N. Since 1 8 1 1 Mary Fielden 
had conducted the tea-dealing business in 
Church Street beneath the bank. Stonehouse 1 
says that Hadwen's sisters, " The Misses Had- 
wen," conducted the tea business. Possibly 
an explanation may be found by assuming that 
Elizabeth Fielden was the married name of one 
of the Hadwens. The directories give no clue 
as to whether she was maid, wife, or widow. 

However, the firm of Hadwen & Fielden 
was in existence as late as 1845. 

1 "Streets of Liverpool," p. 165, ed. 1879. 




Samuel Hope & Co. George Holt Cotton broker* and banker* 
DiMolution of partnership Edward Barrell Liverpool Borovgh 
Bank Criiit of 1847 CriiU of 1157 Suipeniion of Borough 
Bank Method* of management. 

THE founder of this firm was Samuel Hope, 
son of William Hope. The latter was a 
mercer and draper, living for many years at 
I Atherton Street, with his warehouse adjoining 
at 14 Pool Lane (now South Castle Street). 
This block of property is, I take it, repre- 
sented by Plate 20 in vol. ii. of Herd man's 
" Pictorial Relics of Ancient Liverpool.*' Here 
with him resided his son Samuel, who, after 
an apprenticeship with Nicholas Waterhouse, 
commenced business in 1803 as a cotton broker 
at 2 Water Street, on the south side immedi- 
ately below Castle Street. 

By 1807 William Hope 1 had retired from 
business, and had built himself a house at the 
corner of Hope Street and Hardman Street. 

> He died 2oth March 1*27. agrd 7$. 


Here Samuel Hope also lived. The house is 
now the expensively decorated Philharmonic 
Hotel. In the same year, yth October 1807, 
he took as apprentice George Holt, aged 17. 
The latter, son of Oliver Holt, was born at 
Town Mill, Rochdale, on 24th June 1790. 
At the conclusion of his apprenticeship in 
1812, Samuel Hope took him into partner- 
ship. The circular, dated 28th November 
1812, is as follows: 

"I have pleasure to apprise you that I have taken 
Mr. George Holt into partnership with myself under 
the title of 'Samuel Hope & Co.' Having been 
invited to this measure by the assistance I have de- 
rived from Mr. Holt's ability and application during 
the five years he has been acquiring a knowledge of 
the business in my office, I am encouraged to hope 
that these qualities will powerfully second my own 
exertions to merit a continuance of your patronage." 

To the business of cotton brokers they added 
later on that of bankers. 

On 1 7th September 1816 Samuel Hope 
married at St. John's, Manchester, Rebecca (or 
Rebekah), daughter of Thomas Bateman, Esq., 
then of Higher Ardwick, near Manchester, but 
subsequently of Middleton Hall, Youlgreen, 
co. Derby. 

On ist September 1820 George Holt mar- 


ried at Edge Hill Church, Emma, the elder 
daughter of William and Jane Dunning. 1 

Samuel Hope had purchased a considerable 
amount of property in Everton, and in 1820* he 
took down two excellent houses, and built on 
their site a stately edifice. Here, in Everton 
Terrace, he took up his residence, and lived 
there till his death. Sycrs,' speaking of the 
proprietor of this "spacious and elegant man- 
sion," says, "To the poor and uneducated he 
has been, and still continues to be, a fervent, 
active, and sincere friend." 

On 3<Dth June 1823 the partnership between 
Samuel Hope and George Holt was terminated, 
the official notice of the dissolution appearing 

i William Durning had been a wine and spirit merchant, with 
office* at fint in School Lane, later on in Church Street. He had a 
partner, Edmund Lewin, who, after William Durning's retirement 
from butiness about 1820, carried on the firm under the title of Lewin 
and Latscll. Mr. Durning had for many year* resided in Edge Lane, 
and had acquired a considerable amount of land in the neighbourhood. 
Hence the ancient road called Rake Lane, on which part of this 
property abutted, was in later years re-named Durning Road, and 
when a continuation road was made through other portions of Mr. 
Durning'* land this was named Holt Road. Mr. William Durning's 
property went to his two daughter*, one married to George Holt a* 
above, the other to J. B. Smith, sometime M.F. for Norwich. Williun 
Durning died 4th September 1830, in his eightieth year, his wife Jane 
predeceasing him on 27th February 1830, aged 70 years. The date 
of the marriage of George Holt is wrongly given a* its* in Goner 
Williams' " Liverpool Privateers," p. i j - 

* Picton gives this date a* 1818, bat I take it that thi Is a printer's 

" History of Everton," Liverpool, itjc. 


in the Gazette for 8th May 1824. In view 
of the different parts enacted by the partners 
in connection with their joint concern as cotton 
brokers and bankers, it is curious to note the 
allocation of the businesses which now became 
divided. Samuel Hope, who had originated the 
cotton business, became banker solely, and 
George Holt, to whom it is said that the initia- 
tion of the banking business was due, became 
cotton broker solely. 

Here we part with George Holt, who was 
eminently successful in business, and who died, 
full of honours, on i6th February I86I. 1 

1 His wife Emma, born zoth February 1802, died yth July 1871. 
George Holt was unwearied in his exertions, with heart, brain, and 
purse, for the improvement, whether of mind, body, or estate, of his 
less fortunate fellow-citizens. At a time when public opinion was, 
to say the least, apathetic as to the value of " secondary " education, 
he devoted valuable time and energy to its support. His work in 
furthering the objects of the Mechanics' Institution, now the Liver- 
pool Institute, was incessant, and his purchase of Blackburne House, 
for the formation, in connection with the Liverpool Institute, of a 
Girls' Public School, proved him to be long in advance of current 
ideas. The building and grounds of the latter school, the first of its 
kind in England, were, on his decease, presented by his family to the 
Directors of the Liverpool Institute as a memorial of George Holt. 
In him the charities of the town found an unfailing friend. He also 
occupied himself with public affairs, being a member of the Town 
Council from 1835 to 1856. As Chairman of the Water Committee he 
conducted the difficult task of converting unlearned opposition to the 
Rivington Water Scheme into appreciation of its necessity. Thus 
was laid the foundation of Liverpool's magnificent water supply. As 
a member of the Dock Board, he stoutly maintained the necessity of 
treating its aims and objects as a national trust, rather than as of 
purely local concern. He was a J. P. both for borough and county. 



He for a while continued his cotton business 
next door to his old partner, but later on 
removed to i Chapel Street, and finally occupied 
pan of his property, India Buildings, Water 
Street. These were built in 1833, and at the 
time they were erected it was considered that 
their projector was erratic. But time proved 
the foresight of George Holt, and his example 
of erecting large blocks of mercantile offices soon 
found numerous imitators. 

The bank l still retained the title of Samuel 

His tons worthily preserve the tradition* of their father, the 
tradition of using their wealth for public wcaL The motto of (be 
Liverpool Institute is N MM itlum ii4 Mi * M*, and to that 
motto the Holt family give* living force. In recent year* the gift, 
the magnificent gift, to the community of Wavcrtrec Park a* a play- 
ground for the children for ever, sufficiently stamps the thoughtfully 
generous cast of mind of the Holt family. Later the purchase and 
presentation of the block of property known as Sandon Terrace, to 
enable the Liverpool Institute to widen its borders, gives evidence 
of their strong desire that the vast school, to which their father was 
so liberal and devoted, should not lack space for adequate espansion. 
Still more recently the opening of the George Holt Physics Labor*, 
tory in Liverpool University marked another step in the same direc- 
tion. This member of the family, born 9th September il*4, died jrd 
April 1896, had previously founded and endowed chairs of physiology 
(1891) and pathology (1894), and was in other respects generous to 
the University. It was in the fitness of things that the first Lord 
Mayor of Liverpool should be Robert Doming Holt, whose mm 
also is the latest distinguished addition to the distinguished roll of 
Liverpool's honorary freemen. 

1 Picton (" Memorials of Liverpool,* vol. ii. p. 16, ed. 1175) has 
stated that the house of John Tarleton. Mayor of Liverpool 1764, 
was on the site of the present Manchester and Liverpool District 
Bank. This the author believes to be an error. 

The ite of the District Bank is that of the Borough Bank, which 



Hope & Co., the " Co." being Edward Burrell, 
who had been with Samuel Hope for some time. 
They prospered, and were wealthy men when, 
under the influence of the current mania, they 
converted the private bank into a joint-stock 
company under the title of the Liverpool 
Borough Bank, with a capital of 500,000 in 
;io shares. They found excellent support, 
32,000 out of the 50,000 shares being appro- 
priated before the public issue. The main 
points of their circular to their clients are : 

l6th June 1836. 

"We have given notice by advertisement, and now 
particularly apprise you, of our intention to decline the 

succeeded Samuel Hope & Co. in business and building. Now John 
Tarleton died in 1773, and was succeeded by his son Thomas. The 
position of his house can be shown by comparing the early 
directories : 

1774 Talbot, 7 Water Street. Thomas Tarleton, 10 Water Street. 

1781 Do. 6 do. Do. 9 do. 

Thus Tarleton lived below the Talbot Hotel, on the site of which the 
Bank of Liverpool now stands. 

In 1786, when the west side of Castle Street was thrown back, the 
houses at the upper end of Water Street were cut off. Hence in 1790 
we find the house of Daniel Dale, The King's Arms, is 5 Water 
Street. Now Daniel Dale, when in 1786 opening the King's Arms 
Hotel, advertised it as "Late the house of Thomas Tarleton." In 
18x9 James Brierley (" Binns Collection," vol. xiii.) sketched the 
" Parish Offices, late King's Arms Inn," showing it to be on the east 
corner of Fenviict Street. The Talbot is shown next door, higher up 
Water Street. 

The same error is found in the note to page 280, vol. i. ed. 1875, 
itself a correction of a greater error in the first edition. 


banking business from and after 1st July next in favour 
of the Liverpool Borough Bank, of which our Mr. 
Edward Burrcll is appointed Manager, and Mr. Hope 
the Chairman of the Board of Directors. The business 
will be conducted as heretofore, and on the same 
premises. . . . Grateful acknowledgments of confi- 
dence . . . during the last thirteen years. 


But the connection of the original partners 
of Samuel Hope & Co. with the newly-formed 
joint-stock bank did not last long. On 2jrd 
September 1837 Edward Burrell died in London, 
aged 44. He had resided in Stafford Street from 
about 1820 to 1828, removing thence to Lithcr- 
land, and later, before 1832, to Orrcll (if 
indeed these two latter abodes be not the same 
house), where his home was at the time of his 

He was of humble parentage, early lost his 
father, and was brought up at the Kendal Blue 
Coat School. He had married when and to 
whom the author has failed to find. She was 
named Margaret, but they do not appear to have 
had any children. His will, proved at Chester 
4th November 1 837, left an annuity to his mother, 
Susan Troughton, wife of Richard Troughton, 
Kendal, weaver, and various benefactions to 
public charities, amongst them being a bequest 
of 500 guineas to the Kendal Blue Coat School, 


" of which institution he frequently expressed 
the most grateful recollection." The value of 
the estate was sworn under ^40,000. 

On 1 5th October of the same year Samuel 
Hope died at the house of his father-in-law, 
Thomas Bateman, Middleton Hall, near Bake- 
well, in his fifty-seventh year. 1 He was a man 
of considerable strength of character, and had 
pronounced Liberal views. In philanthropic en- 
deavours he was ever to the fore, and he was 
earnest in his promotion of educational improve- 

When a meeting was called on 8th June 1825 
to support the project of Mechanics' Institution 
(now the Liverpool Institute) he was one of 
the principal speakers. He identified himself 
strongly with the anti-slavery movement, and 
was an influential speaker at public meetings 
in 1829 and 1831 in connection with the agita- 
tion for the removal of restrictions on commerce 
caused by the exclusive charter of the East 
India Company. A sturdy Nonconformist, Mr. 
Hope took the chair on two occasions in 1837 
when the question of the abolition of church 
rates occupied public attention. 

It is to be feared that the untimely removal 
of the original proprietors of the bank from the 

1 His wife, Rebekah, born I2th April 1794, died on 8th October 
1838. They had ten children. 


supervision and management was not in favour 
of the success of the joint-stock concern. As 
was the case with so many others of the banks 
started about this time, much imprudent business 
was done, and funds were not kept liquid. In 
1847 a crisis occurred, due largely to excessive 
railway speculations. The locked-up state of 
the Borough Bank's assets made it necessary 
that the assistance of the Bank of England 
should be obtained. 

Ten years later came the crisis caused by the 
universal distrust in America. It was there 
discovered that the railway accounts had been 
" cooked," and under the influence of the bad 
feeling which this produced an organised *' bear " 
movement was made against all undertakings. 
One hundred and fifty banks failed in Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia, and Rhode Island. 
The movement swelled into a panic and re- 
acted on England. The nearest ports to America 
first felt the shock. On 27th October 1857 the 
Borough Bank closed its doors. 

On examination of its affairs it was found that 
its bad debts were exceedingly large. Some 
600,000 to 700,000, previously taken as good, 
were now found to be almost valueless. They 
had 3,500,000 bills in London with the en- 
dorsement of the bank, and of this amount some 
700,000 to 1,000,000 "had no negotiable 


validity at all except that endorsement." The 
total loss was estimated at ^940,000, the whole 
capital of the bank being thus swept away. 

There was no question as to advances having 
improperly been made to favoured persons, the 
disasters being caused by want of discretion in 
the management. 

Incidentally the Parliamentary Committee, 
appointed to inquire into the causes of the 
panic of 1857, revealed the former method of 
the management of the bank. There were 
twelve directors, who appointed two managing 
directors and a chairman. The entire conduct 
of the accounts was entrusted to the two 
managing directors and the manager, the other 
directors not being in touch with the customers 
or their accounts. 



THE above was a firm of booksellers and 
stationers who had their place of business in 
1816 at 14 Castle Street. Very little informa- 
tion is forthcoming concerning them. One of 
the peculiarities of the case is that only Evans 
and Hall are designated in the directories as 
" bankers and booksellers," Chcgwin appearing 
as " bookseller and stationer " only. 

The partners were Hugh Ellis Evans, Thomas 
Chegwin, 1 and William Eaton Hall. 

Of Hugh Ellis Evans nothing is known except 
that he married, I3th July 1813, Miss Frances 
Jones, and that he for some time resided at 
Brownlow Hill. 

William Eaton Hall was the son of Eaton 
and Frances Hall. Eaton Hall was an enameller 
in Pitt Street, where he died 2 ist December 1 8 1 6, 

1 He married, 3rd August iSi6, at St. George's, Everton, Mary, 
daughter of Sedman Parker. The last named died 14th September 
1817, aged 6s. He had a slight connection with the banking com- 
munity, inasmuch as he took over the business of Clarke the grocer. 
who issued the Livtrp^l Hjl/ft**y. 


aged 67 years. His wife died 4th May 1832, 
aged 70 years. William Eaton Hall had been 
resident for some years in Russell Street. It 
appears that he had been a clerk with Messrs. 
A. Heywood, Sons, & Co. 

The sole records of their banking are in the 
Liverpool directories, which, in successive years' 
describe them as " bankers and booksellers." 
But the dire year of 1825 came, and the names 
of Hugh Ellis Evans and William Eaton Hall 
appear no more as bankers. 

They both at this time changed their resi- 
dences, and both went to reside in Seymour 

The firm of Evans, Chegwin, & Hall as 
printers and stationers is given in the directories 
up to 1841, but in the year 1845 the title is 
Evans & Chegwin. 



John Thrclfall Multiplicity of butineic Bankrupt Stolen Bank 
of England note TbreUall'i Brewery Company. 

JOHN THRELFALL was originally a grocer in Kent 
Square, who by 1816 had gone to reside in 
Nelson Street, St. James, and by 1 8 1 8 had ex- 
panded into a variety of businesses. He then 
resided at 8 Nelson Street, and had a bank, 
wholesale grocery warehouse, and liquor vaults 
at 8 York Street. A considerable business was 
done, but on loth January 1824 a commission in 
bankruptcy was issued against him. A list of his 
businesses appear, and they are sufficiently varied 
brewer, liquor merchant, grocer, spirit dealer, 
bill-broker, banker, &c. One wonders what was 
covered by that " &c." 

He held a large amount of freehold and lease- 
hold property in Liverpool, and an interest in a 
steam corn-mill, at that time a great novelty. 
He also had a freehold estate of 60 acres, 
with farmhouse, buildings, &c., at Whittingham, 
between Lancaster and Preston. 


His London correspondents were Williams 
and Co., with whom he turned over ,200,000 
per annum, no inconsiderable sum in those 

Later on in the year 1824 an action was 
brought against him for discounting a Bank of 
England note for ^1000 which had been stolen. 
Threlfall had discounted it for a Jewish slop- 
seller named Isaac Henry, of Pool Lane, keeper 
of an American tavern. Scarlett, K.C., led for 
the prosecution, and he gave the rough edge of his 
tongue to bankers such as Aspinall and Threlfall, 
drawing very invidious distinctions between their 
businesses and those of Moss, Hey wood, and 
Ley land. It appeared that the note was first 
offered to Aspinalls' for discount, who said that 
they had not so much money in the place. A verdict 
of 1000 and 403. costs was entered against John 

His estate realised considerable dividends. 

He continued in the liquor line of business, 
establishing himself in Crosbie Street, Park Lane, 
the site of which is now covered by the London 
and North-Western Wapping Goods Station. 
He next became a wine merchant in Cornwallis 
Street, afterwards at the same place a provision 

A John Mayor Threlfall, ale and porter 
brewer, whom it is presumed was his son, resided 


with him here, and had i brewery at 3 and 4 
Crosbie Street aforesaid. 

John Threlfall's wife died 1 2th September 1 826, 
aged 53. They had a daughter, Alice, who was 
married iyth April 1823 to Samuel Antwiss of 
Aston, Cheshire. 

John Mayor Threlfall about 1832 commenced 
his brewing business in Crosbie Street, and until 
1847 it continued there, in which year he had 
established a supplementary brewery in Trucman 
Street. By 1862 he had opened a brewery in 
Manchester. He died between then and 1864, 
and his executors continued the three breweries. 
By 1866 the address of the Manchester brewery 
was Cook Street, Salford. It was registered as a 
limited liability company on i6th March 1888, 
and was thus formed to amalgamate the businesses 
of J. M. Threlfall and W. A. Matheson. The 
present capital paid up is 1,825,000. 



THE author is unable to give any account of this 
banker. He is in the directory of 1 8 1 8 described 
as being a banker residing at 34 Ranelagh Street, 
in 1821 as of 60 Ranelagh Street, and in 1823 as 
of 2 Cases Street, but in 1825 he is described as 
a " gentleman " of 2 Cases Street. 

He was the son of Patrick and Ellen Fair- 
weather. The former went through the usual 
gradations of slaver captain, privateer captain, 
privateer owner, finally settling down on shore as 
a merchant. 

We find that his ship Dalrimple, which had 
sailed from Liverpool for Old Calabar on 2Oth 
October 1772, was in the following March ashore 
on the Isle of May. 

His employers, Bolden & Co., gave him the 
command of the Eellona^ 250 tons, 24 guns, 
and 140 men, and with her he took several prizes, 
one, which he took into Jamaica in 1780, being 
worth 4000. 


In 1790 he was master of the ship Mary 

By 1798-9 he is described as owner of a 
privateer and merchant, and resided at I Hood 
Street, St. Johns. While he was a captain he 
was a member of that "Liverpool Fireside/* 
whose minutes have been preserved from 1776 to 
1781. From this we find he was born 1 2th July, 
though in what year " deponent sayeth not." On 
25th January 1 802, " Ellen Fairweather, widow of 
the late Captain Patrick Fairweathcr (of i Hood 
Street, St. Johns), gives notice that she has re- 
moved to i Shaw's Place or Haymarket, where 
she has genteel accommodation for board and 
lodging." By 1805 she had opened premises 
at 45 King Street as a tea-dealer and hosier. 
By 1 8 1 1 she had a similar business at 34 
Ranelagh Street, and here she was in 1818, 
when the name of her son appears at the same 
address as " banker." She was still at that 
number in 1821, but her son had taken separate 
premises at 60 Ranelagh Street. But by 1823 
they were both at 2 Cases Street, she as tea-dealer 
and hosier, and he as banker. But by 1825 he, as 
above stated, is no longer a banker. The crisis 
in the ever memorable year of 1 825 doubtless put 
an end to his venture, though no trace of his 
name has been found among those who went 


down. Ellen Fairweather died on 5th October of 
the same year, aged 76 years. 

Robert Fairweather after her death resided for a 
while at Orrell, and died at his house in Everton 
Crescent on 26th February 1828, aged 41 years. 



Meriey Bank Fraudulent note-muing bank of London origin 
Attempt to itrangle the fraud at birth Writ* against Uvtrp^t 
Mercury for libel Bill forgeriet Bill discounting extraordinary 
Insolvency of the bank Non-exitent partner*. 

OF the fraudulent character of this bank there 
can be no doubt. It was simply created to foist 
worthless paper on the public, and, but for the 
vigilance and plucky perseverance of Egerton 
Smith, might have succeeded to a greater extent 
than it did. In Aris's Birmingham paper of 7th 
May 1821 appears a story to the effect that an 
engraver had been employed by a firm professing 
to trade under the name of the " Mersey Bank " 
to prepare notes for i and 5, and bills for 15. 
The plates were completed, and handed to the 
employer, who decamped without paying for 
them. They purport to be drawn on Messrs. 
Willerton, Beaumont, Graham, & Co., Bankers, 
Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London, by Morton, 
Hardie, Walker, & Smyth, of the Mersey Bank. 
In May 1821 the Morning Chronicle published 


a notice to the effect that an attempt had 
been made to bring off a huge swindle in 

On 1 2th May 1821 D. Andrews was brought 
up at the Guildhall charged with extensive fraud. 
He intended, in collusion with others, to found a 
fraudulent bank under the name of the Mersey 
Bank, introducing two or three names of well- 
known respectability intermixed with those of 
persons whose intention it was to commit one of 
the most mischievous and ruinous frauds that was, 
perhaps, ever practised. Notes to the nominal 
amount of many thousands of pounds were pro- 
duced, with the signatures cut off. The parties, 
having had some intimation that the fraud was dis- 
covered, did this to prevent a charge of forgery. 
The prisoner was discharged on account of no evi- 
dence being produced that any of these notes had 
been put into circulation. The Liverpool Mercury 
published all the above, and its then editor and 
proprietor, Egerton Smith, was very keen on 
obtaining and retailing all information on the 
subject, and to the columns of the Mercury I am 
indebted for all the facts of this paper. The so- 
called bank had opened a place of business in 
Church Street, with the name " Mersey Bank " 
painted thereon, and they at once issued two 
writs on the Liverpool Mercury for publication of 
the above facts. Mr. Johnson Gore, of Gore's 


/fdvertuer, was also served with a writ. The 
wording of one of the writs on the Mercury ran 
that they " broke into the close of the said bankers 
with force of arms, and that they did other 
wrongs to the great damage of Daniel Worton, 
James Hardic, and Wm. Smyth." The Mercury 
treated the matter with great contempt, and said 
that if ever they break into a bank, they will do 
so into one in which they expect to find some- 
thing. The editor could not restrain his char- 
acteristic love for puns, and sent the following to 
the boy in charge of the bank, to be by him pre- 
sented to his masters, if he can find them : 

" Great sirs, it bankers ill befits 
Instead of bills to issue writs ! 
So drop your suit without delay ; 
O Mersey Bank ! have mercy, pray ! ** 

Early in December of the said year Egerton 
Smith cautions his readers, while referring to the 
Mersey Bank, against bill forgeries of an extensive 
description, bearing apparent endorsements of 
respectable houses at Manchester, Halifax, and 
Huddersficld. The bearing of this observation 
was evident later, when John Duckworth in 
December 1821 was committed to the Lancaster 
Assizes for negotiating a forged bill of exchange. 
As the evidence brought out the character and 
standing of the Mersey Bank, a precis is given 


of what was stated at the trial. The prisoner, 
John Duckworth, had called on one Jonathan 
Ball, tobacconist, Whitechapel, Liverpool, stating 
that he was a tobacconist in Chorlton Row, 
Manchester, and purchased ^50 worth of tobacco. 
He paid for it by a bill of exchange bearing the 
endorsement of Shakespeare G. Sikes, banker, 
Huddersfield, which, together with the bill, 
was found to be a forgery. The prisoner was 
apprehended at Coventry. William Hide Sikes 
was also committed at the same time for passing 
forged bills. A bill for ^125, drawn by Thomas 
Hogg & Co. of Holbeck, near Leeds, and 
having the endorsement of Rawdon Briggs and 
Co., William Bates & Co., and Shakespeare G. 
Sikes, was presented at the bank of Messrs. 
Lowry, Roscoe, & Wardell of Liverpool for 
discount by a Mr. Matthew Samuel Haynes of 
15 Blake Street, and who stated he had received 
it in a letter from Leeds. Messrs. Lowry 
and Co., having found the bill to be a forgery, 
sent to Mr. Haynes' lodgings, and were there 
referred to the " Mersey Bank," in Church 
Street, of which concern Mr. Haynes was found 
to be the corresponding clerk. After some 
difficulty they succeeded in getting from him 
17, is., which he said was the whole of the money 
then in the bank. They were then referred by 
Mr. Haynes to a Mr. [John] Richardson of 


14 Upper Ncwington, who wii stated to be the 
cashier to the " Mersey Bank," and from him 
they received two bills, one of 20, and the other 
f 3 (*hich bills Lowry or Co. had previously 
paid to Mr. Haynes), and the balance of the 
125 in a draft on London. It appeared from 
the testimony of Haynes that the prisoner Sikcs 
presented the bill to the Mersey Bank for 
discount, and there had it discounted in l**t 
notes of their own, with the exception of 30 in 
cash. On the day of the discovery of the forgery 
Sikes sent a bill to the Mersey Bank to be dis- 
counted for 98, 1 6s., drawn by John Milnes, 
Huddcrsficld, on William Dickinson, Ironmonger 
Lane, London, accepted at Master-man's, and en- 
dorsed George Clay and Shakespeare G. Sikes. 

Then a mythical person, John Peacock, writ- 
ing from 40 Wapping, Liverpool, to the Dublt* 
Morning Post, denies the accuracy of the above 
account which had appeared in the JMrpM/ 
Mercury. He states that the Mercury had 
offered 1000 and all expenses to Messrs. 
Worton, Hardie, & Co. to compromise the 
action of libel which the latter were bringing 
against the former. Whereon the Mercury 
waxes wroth, denies that they ever offered 
looo farthings, much less 1000, to Worton 
and Co. ; it inquires who the latter are, states 
that it cannot trace them in any way, although 


the " bank " in Church Street is decorated with 
their names, and says that they verily believe 
that there are no such persons in existence. It 
also wants to know who Mr. Peacock is, and 
asks for some reference, banker, merchant, or 
tradesman, who can vouch for his respecta- 

Then the Mercury on nth January 1822 
became even more outspoken. " The opinion 
we formed as to the character and views of the 
projectors of the ' Mersey Bank ' has been too 
fully confirmed. . . . We do not speak on light 
grounds when we pronounce the Mersey Bank 
is, what we have all along regarded it to be, 
INSOLVENT. There are now in this town, both 
in the hands of bankers and other persons, 
several of their bills protested for non-payment. 
Their small notes for ^5, and even those for i, 
have been dishonoured." There are several com- 
munications from correspondents. One presented 
two of the notes for .1 each to Willerton & Co., 
Waterloo Place, and was refused payment. The 
reason assigned was that the house at Liverpool 
had overdrawn ; but they Willerton's) are in 
daily expectation of a remittance. A jocular 
correspondent writes that although the house 
seemed to be blown upon, yet their paper goes 
farther than that of any other Liverpool banker. 
The bills of the latter go to London and stop 


there, a distance of 200 miles, while those of 
the former go to London, and invariably come 
hack. Hence the bills of the Mersey Bank go 
twice as far as those of any other Liverpool 

On list January 1822 the following circular 
was issued : 

"MtmT B*m. !.***. 

" Messrs. Worton, Hardic, It Co. having been under 
the necessity (from concurrent circumstance* which 
they could not control) to suspend the payment of 
their engagements, respectfully announce to the several 
holders of their notes and bills that all their notes on 
demand will be paid in the months of February and 
March viz. all the i notes in the last week of 
February and the second week of March, and the $ 
notes in the last week of March and the second week of 
April, during which time an arrangement will be made 
for paying all bills after sight or date. Interim they 
request, wherever it can be done, the holders of such 
bills will return them to the parties to whom they were 

The Gazette for i8th February contains a 
notice of dissolution of partnership of D. 
Worton, James Hardie, W. Walker, and William 
Smyth of Liverpool, bankers. 

The Mercury for ist February 1822 says: 
** Mersey Bank. This respectable body have, for 
the present, retired from the fatigues of business, 
... as they have declined in favour of J^km Dee 


and Richard Roe, who have present possession of 
the bank in Church Street." 

The cashier of the Mersey Bank was called as 
a witness in a forgery case in the next April, and 
in reply to questions said that of the four partners 
of the Mersey Bank, two he had never seen, 
Walker and Smyth. Daniel Worton resided at 
Little Chelsea, and William Smyth at Pall Mall. 
None of them resided in Liverpool. 

In May, in a case of insolvent debtors, it was 
stated in Court that none of the partners of the 
Mersey Bank or Waterloo Bank could be found. 
In October one of the notes of the Mersey Bank 
on Willerton, Beaumont, & Graham was returned 
to Newcastle with answer, " No such firm in 

In November 1822 Thomas Ambrose applied 
for his discharge in the Insolvent Debtors Court. 
He had been discharged about two and a half 
years ago from debts to the amount of jooo. 
Six months after his discharge he took the house 
in Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, from where the 
Waterloo Bank was carried on. The insolvent 
was an anonymous partner in the bank. There 
was such a person as Willerton in existence. He 
formerly lived at Pontefract, and now resides at 
Hull. There was also a person named Beaumont. 
He formerly resided at Islington, but his present 
residence is unknown. Bills were drawn in the 


name of D. Miaston, but no person of that name 
had to do with the bank. Asked if a bill drawn 
in that name was not in his handwriting, insolvent 
appealed to the Court that he was not bound to 
answer. Discharge refused. 


ACTS of PAKUAMKNT. 15. ao. tj. 
0. S3. 44. 9 

- special, for IJverpool. 9. 15. 

7. ISJ 

African Association. 1*9. 133. iji. 
189 *. 

- trade. 63*.. 133. MI. 171. no 
Ambrose. Thomas. 130 
Andrew*. D., Mf 

Antwiss. Samuel. 119 
Arkle. Benjamin. 181 

- George, 176. 181 
Arrowsmitb. Jane. 190 

- Thomas. 190 
Ashton. Elizabeth. 7$ *. 

- John. 75 *. 

- Nicholas. 75 m. 
Askew. Thomas. 165 
Aspinall. Broxup. 187. 188 

James. 184 

- Rev. James ("Old Stager"). 
63*.. tat. 133. 143. 177 

- James ft Broxup. 187 

John, 183 

- John, ft Son. at. a*. 183-8 

- John, ft Sons, 183-4 
Mary. 186 

Samuel. 60 

- William, 184 

Atholl. Dowager Duche*s of. 113. 

- Duke of. 113*. 

BAIRD, James. 34. 7311. 
Ball. Jonathan. t6 
Bancroft. Joseph. 193 . 

Bank Wtarw. 14. rt. 18. w. *v 

86. tao. laj. 135. tof . it), ap*. 

aij M. i*. 817. a*i. ad 
Hk MMq*. 40, 41 
Bank RcatncUon Act. if, a|. 

Banlwr BaJWh. 84. too. 118. i>. 

139- t7 
- Mayor*. 84. 109. llf. taa^ 

139. 17*. IT* 

Bank of Inland. 80 
Bank of England. i$ 17. *t v 

7. ao-34. 43-4. M7- 49. lj. 


Bank of Umpool. $. 34. toa 
Barclay. Bru. ft Co,, aw 
Bimed"! Bank. 34 
Central Bank of Uiayurt. 

CMM. Brookes, ft Co.. 73 . 
Ihion* ft Co.. 73 
Diaons ft Wanftrl. 73 
Drewett ft r owkr. 187 
KadaOe ft Co.. $9. " 

Forbes ft Graforr. M S*' 
Fry ft Chapaaaa. 186 
Godfrey. WeMwonb. ft Co.. af 
Jones. Loyd. ft Co.. 7*. 70 
Uwrpool Borooch Bank, ao>) . 

aio 14 


Lhvpool Royal Bank, tao 
Uivrpool Union Bank. 73 



Bankers (continued) 

London City and Midland Bank, 

34. 200 

Lubbock&Co., 188 

Manchester and Liverpool Dis- 
trict Bank, 34, 73., 210 . 

Mercantile and Exchange Bank, 

08 n. 
National Provincial Bank of 

England, 31 n. 
North and South Wales Bank, 

35, 174, 181, 182, 183 
North- Western Bank, 34, 195,200 
Parr's Bank, 73 n. 

Sir Peter Pole & Co. , 28 
Williams & Co. , Chester, 77 
Williams & Co., London, 135, 218 

Commission, 45 
Dress of, 47, 48 
Early. 36, 37 
Hours of business, 39, 40 
Liberality of, 46 

Banks, joint-stock, 29, 30-4, 187 

Banks, paper issuing, 15, 29, 159, 
223, 227 

Banks, Private, of Liverpool. See 
also under separate headings 
Aspinall & Son, John, 183-8 
Caldwell, Charles, fir 5 Co. , 84-90 
Clarke fir" Sons, William, 56-9 
Clarkes & Roscoe, 61 
Corporation of Liverpool, 144-58 
Crane, Thomas, Samuel, and 

Joseph, 124-6 

Cromie, Sir Michael, Bart., 
Pownoll, &* Hartman, 159-64 
Evans, Chegwin, fir* Hall, 215-16 
Fairweather, Robert, 220-2 
Fletcher, Roberts, Roscoe, & Co. , 

Gregson, William, Sons, Parke, 

and Mor land, 110-17 
Gregson, William, Sons, Parkes, 
and Clay, 117-19 

H ad-wen, Joseph, 201-4 

Banks, Private, of Liverpool (con 


Hanly, Richard, 165-8 
Heywood, Arthur, Sons, fir* Co., 


Hope, Samuel, & Co., 205-14 
Ley/and fir* Bullins, 169-82 
Leyland, Clarkes, fir> Roscoe, 61-3 
Lowry, Roscoe, fir" Wardell, 72-4 
Mersey Bank, 223-31 
Moss, Dales, df Rogers, 192 
Moss, Dale, Rogers, & Moss, 195 
Moss, Rogers, fif Moss, 196 
Roscoe, Clarke, & Roscoe, 63-71 
Roscoe, Clarke, Wardell, & Co. , 

Staniforth, Ingram, Bold, and 

Daltera, 127-43 
Threlfall, John, 217-19 
Wyke, John, 49-55 

Banner, Anne, 185 n. 

& Billinge, 185 . 

Harmood, 79, 185, 185 n. 

J. S. Harmood, 5 

Thomas, 5, 5 n. 

Barlow, Cecilia A. F., 114 

Samuel, 114 

Bateman, Rebecca, 206 

Thomas, 206, 212 

Bellairs, Frances C., 101 . 

James, 101 . 

Berry, Henry, 5 . 

Bever, John, 131-2 

Billinge, Anne, 185 . 

Thomas, 185 n. 

Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser, 19, 

38. I9 
Bills, 17, 20, 32, 33, 41, 42, 148 

Birch, Caleb, io8. 

Eleanor, 108 n. 

Sir Joseph, Bart. , 108-9 

Thomas, 108, 108-9 . 

Sir Thomas Bernard, Bar . 

109 n. 
Blackburn, John I., 200 



Margaret E.. soo 
I. Henry. 136 
Boat Race. Oxford . 
131 .. 199 . 

Md. Anbar. 140 

Elisabeth. 140 

Isaac O.. 139. MO 

Jonas. i7. 138-40 

Peter. MO 

Bolton. John. 86. 130. 130 . 
Booth, Charles, to 
Bostock. Elisabeth. 75 
Boughey. Sarah A.. 131 . 

Sir Thomas P.. Bart.. 131 *. 
Bourne. Cornelius. 86 . 
Bradley. Elisabeth. 131 
Prvig*. Edward. 170 

E'len. 170 

Tames. 107. 107 . 

Mary. 107 m. 

Bnerley. James, aio *. 
Brooks. Joseph. 146 
Brown. John. 146. 148 

Thomas. 133 

Sir William. Bart.. 171 

Browne. Brown, ft Co. . 86 m. 

Emily Juliana, toa 

Felicia D.. 86 . 

George (I.). 86 . 

George (II.). 164 

Broxup. Margaret. 184 

Bulltn. Christopher (I.). 170. 173 

Christopher (II.). 173-5. IT* 


Dorothy. 173 

Margaret. 170 

Richard. 46. i7*-4. I7t-8t 

BunneO. James. 30 
Burrell. Edward, aio-is 

Margaret, sit 

Burton. Thomas. 1*9 
Rushby. Bernard. 108 . 
Butler. Richard. 135 


in . it* 

Jote. in 

John Asa*o. *>. iff 

109. 189 ay 

i aa. Karl e*. |6 



* Soa*. WUha*. a. f 9 


Ctarkca * ROMM. i. fti. 171. 171 
Clay. Krancn. tii. ul . 
Heavy. u8- 

Making * POTy. ! 

ftaCMfJey. 118 

MM*, in 

Parry * MidgWy. til 

Richard, in. 118 

Claytoa. CM*. * Co. . too. 189 - 

Margaret. 189 . 

Sarah. 189*. 

Wittaai. 189 . 

Ctagg. rUaaah. 194 

- jamea.194 
Cnlaage. M. }, am. 43 
Coke, ThoeMS. 66 
Culqakt. John. 113. lit 


. IS- 
n. > st. 44. . 97. ***. *tJ8 

144 S. $. J. $ 

17. it 

134. 134 
Corporalkw of Upool. 1$. we !$*. 

E. BaMMs. 180 



Corrections (continued) 

Brooke, 117 ., 152 n. 

Picton,64 n., 134 ., 207 ., 209- 
3io n. 

G. Williams, 207 . 
Cottingham, Thomas, 190 n. 
Crane, T. S. &J., 124-6 

& Jones, 126 

Joseph, 124-5 

Samuel, 124-5 

Thomas, 124 

Creevey Papers, 102 n. , 197 . 
Crigan, Rev. Claudius, 113 n. 
Cromie, Sir Michael, Bart., Pow- 

noll, & Hartman, 17, 159-^4 

Anne Rachel, 162 

Emily Juliana, 162 

Gertrude, 161 

Rev. John, 161 

Sir Michael, Bart., 161-2 

William, Dublin, 161 

William, Cromore, 161 

Rev. William, 162 

SirWilliamLambert, Bart., 161 

Crompton, Charles, 80 
Crosbie, James, 92 

Alderman William, Jun. , 146-8 

Crump, Elizabeth, 72 

John Gregory, 72 

Currency, 42-4 

Currie, Dr. James, 3, 14, 17, 58, 159 

DAINTRY, Ryle, & Co., 90 . 
Dale, Daniel, 210 n. 

Ellen (I.), 193, 193 . 

Ellen (I I.), 193 . 

George Edward, 193, 196 

Hannah, 193 n. 

Margaret, 193, 193 n. 

Roger Newton, 193 

Roger (II.), 194 

Sarah Jane, 193 . 

Daltera, James, 143 

Jane, 142 

Joseph, 127, 140-2 

Joseph, Jun., 142 

Daulby, Daniel, 70 

Davies, Dale, & Co., 193, 193 n. 

James, & Co., 193 n. 

Dawson, Benjamin K., 135 

De Quincey, Thomas, 58, 82 

Derrick, Samuel, i, 2 

Dillon & Leyland, 169 

Dining hour of merchants, &c. , 39- 

Distress, commercial, 14, 18-24, 

27-8, 30, 185 
Dixons & Co., 73 

& Wardell, 73 

Dress, bankers' and merchants', 47, 


captains', 167 

Duckworth, John, 225-6 
Durning, Emma, 47, 207 

Jane, 207 

William, 207, 207 n. 

Duroure, Mary, 100 
Dutton, Joseph, 193 n. 

& Bancroft, 193 . 

Dyer, A. S., 162 n. 

EARLE, Maria, 108 . 

Mary, 96 

Thomas, of Spekelands, 108, 

108 ., 133 

Thomas, of Leghorn, 108 n. 

William, 96, 133, 146, 148 

East India Company, 3, 4, 20, 

Edwards, Amy C. , 199 

Richard, 199 

Edwards-Moss, Sir John, Bart. See 

under Moss 

John. See under Moss 

Margaret E. See under Moss 

Sir Thomas, Bart. See under 

Tom Cottingham. See under 


Ellis, Lister, 30 
Enfield, Dr., i, 75, 75 n. 
Esdaile& Co., 59, 186 



Evans. ClMfwia. ft Hall, 115-16 

Edward. 186 

Hugh Ellis. 115-16 

Eyas. John. 60 

FAMUI. Dr.. no 

of banks. &v Bank 

Fairwe*ther. Ellen. no- 
~ Patrick) MO- i* 

Falkner. Edward. 146. 148 

Fence. The. U*t<Uf*U. 87 9 

Fielden, Bin, huh. ti>j 


Flnakfe. Records of Liverpool. 106- 

167. 170 .. i8a. m 
Fletcher. Roberts, Roscoe. ft Co.. 


Anna. 79 

Caroline, to 

Emily. 80 

Francis, 76-80 

Hannah. 74 

John. 74 

Maria, 71. to 

Thomas, 50, 74-9 

Thomas, Autobiography. 67 . 

Yates. ft Co., 67. 75. 76 

Forwood, Sir Arthur a, Bart., 

195 . 

Faith. 195 . 

George. 10, 195. 195 . 

George Peplow. 195 . 

Thomas Brittain. 195 *. 

Sir William B.. 195 . 

Foster. John. laa 
France. James. 74. 75 

James, ft Co.. 74. 7$ 

Hay burn, ft Co.. 74 

Frankland. Benjamin. 69 

GAS COMPANY. 46. 53. 54 
German. William. 58 
Gildart. Francis, ito 
James, lai 

Bart.. M. 

Mary Una. tot 

Robsnaoa (I. ). 47. so*. SM 

OoU. if, M. ff. ftj. M 
Goorw. ChMtaa. 1*7 

. it! 

Gort. Joba. m.o. 110 

Franca*. IJ7 

Grmwood. Fradmck. 131 .. 
< irtcv ft Brtdc*. 107. top 

- Brtdft ft Holaw. lot 

- Caat. ft Co.. tot v- *<9 

- Wdham. Sons. Parha. 
Moreland. no. 116. 117 

- WOltam. Sons. 
Clay. 117. 119 

ft Co.. 18. 179 

- IJartiMli 1 1 

- James, no. ill. 

- John (1.). 107 

- John (1 1.X no, 119. iso. 140 

- Richard, iti 

William. 107. 109-11. 115 16. 
119. ito*. 

- William. JOB., no 
Grimes. Jane, fo 

- Miss. 191 

- William. 60 

HADWIX. Joseph. >. * - 7T. 


- Joseph. SOB., soi 

- ft Fielden. S04 
Han. Eaton. 115 16 

- Krmnots, sis 

- WtUam F-uon. ttf-lt 

2 3 8 


Halsall, Henry, 128 

Hanly, Francis, 168 

Jane, Miss, 168 

Jane, Mrs. , 165 

Richard, 18, 165-8 

Captain Richard, 165-7 

Thomas Askew, 168 

Hardie, James, 223, 225, 229 

Hardman, John, 92 

Harrison, John, 102 

Margaret, 102 

Hartman, Isaac, 161-3 

Haslam, Captain, 133 

Hayhurst, Thomas, 74, 75, 146, 

Haynes, Matthew S. , 226-7 

Heblethwaite, Captain, 182 

John W. , 182 

Hemans, Felicia D., 86 n. 

Heywood, Arthur, Sons, & Co., 35, 
91-106, 179, 180, 216 

Arthur, Sons, & Co., Man- 
chester, 96 

Anna Maria, 102 

Anne Graham, 92 

Arthur, 92, 94-6, 98 

Arthur, 97, 102, 102 n. 

Arthur, Wakefield, ico 

Benjamin, Drogheda, 92 

Benjamin, Liverpool and 

Manchester, 92 

Benjamin, Wakefield, 99, ico 

Benjamin Arthur, Liverpool 

and Manchester, 96 

Elizabeth, 95, 99 

Elizabeth, Wakefield, 47, 99 

Elizabeth Mary, 109 . 

Hannah, 95, 98 n. 

John Pemberton, 91 n. , 99, 

102, 103 
John Pemberton, Wakefield, 

Mary, 96, 99 . 

Mary, Wakefield, 100 
Nathaniel, 91, 91 . 

Nathaniel, 92 

Heywood, Nathaniel, Liverpool and 
Manchester, 96 

Oliver, 90 

Phoebe, 95, 98 . 

Richard, Drogheda, 92 

Richard, 96, 97, 98 

Richard, 99, 100 

& Thompson, 97 

Heywood Pedigree, 104-5 
Hicks, Anne Rachel, 162 

Sir William, Bart. . 162 

Hodgson, David, 30 

Holidays, Bank and Public, 40-1 

Holt, Emma, 47, 207 

George, 47, 206-9, 208-9 

George, 209 n. 

Oliver, 206 

Robert Burning, 47, 209 n. 

Hope & Co., Samuel, 205-14 

Rebecca, 206 

Samuel, 205-12 

William, 205 

Horton, Daniel, 130 n, 
Houghton, Richard, 191 
Hughes, John, 99 

Miss, 99 

Richard, 134 n. 

Hyndman, H. M. , 26 

INGRAM, Abraham R., 134, 137 

Ann, 136 

Brown & Co. , 133 

Caroline, 136-7 

Catherine, 136 

Christian, 136-7 

Eliza, 136 

Frances, 136-7 

Francis, 127, 131-8 

Francis, 138 

Francis, & Co., 170 

Frederick, 136 

Henry, 134, 136 

Hugh Francis, 137 

Jane, 138 

John, 132, 137 

Kennett, & Ingram, 134 



Ingrain. Mary. 136 

Swab. 131-3. Ij6 

- Swab, 136 

- ft Spranger. 134 

Thomas. 136 

- William, Oulttrn. 131-136 

- William, //tf/4/tfjr. 134 -$. 

- William. Uwffttt. 131 
Ingrains ft Butler. 135 

- ft Co.. Halt/**. 134 

- Rifby. ft Co.. 134-S 

Inns and hotels. 5. ia. s66*..*to. 

JAMES. William. 117*. 
Jevons. Mary A.. 71 

- Thomas. 71 

- Prof. W. S.. 71 
Jewett. Joseph. 53 
johiuoa, John. 89 

- Joseph, no 
Jones. Anna Man*. loa 

- Benjamin Heywood. 105 

- Elisabeth. 99 

- Frances. ai$ 

- Hugh. 47. 99. too. loi. toa. 

- John. 99 

- Loyd. ft Co.. 78. 79 

- Margaret. loa 

- Mary Ellen, toi 

- Richard Heywood. toa 

- Thomas. 99 

- T. Longueville. 100 
Joplin. Thomas. 31 *. 

KATK. Thomas. 183 
Kennett. Benjamin, 134 
King, Joseph. 164 

LACK. Ambrose. 69. 69*. 

- Joshua, 60. 69 . 
Laird. William. 130. 130*. 
Lambert. Ford. Earl of Cawn. 161 

- Gertrude. 161 
Langlon. Joseph. 34 
Lawrence. Charles. 197-4 

Uyted ft Btftas. it, ff. af^ti 
- ClarWi. ft Roam. t. 17* 


- Itidwd. 169 

^ Rtekatd. Sav R. B>Mhi 

- TkoaMa. if. 61-3. M. nr. 
I3J. 4*. 4. J 

UMT, !. 7J". 

I Jlrtiikli. Harold, ijo i. 


Academy of Arts. s 
Acts of 

- Will JIMOrt, rff 

\r:: l-i 

Bank of. 5. 34. * 
Banker Baibfla, 
- Mayors. 
Commerce. *-4. 8$. 86 
Corporation. 15. too. tao-c. 144- 

158. 179-40 
Diaioc boors. 30. 40 
Dtspenavy. 51. $a. 103 . 
Fireside Records of. 166-7. 170 -. 


Gas Company. 46. 53. S4 
Halfpenny. 915 . 
Hound Ham. 8 
InslitoM. aot-9 .. 
Library. 194 
IJterary Cotarit. 5* 



Ottoe. 30.156 

Mail Sarvtot. 3 
Mara* Sockiy. 

2 4 


Liverpool (continued) 
Memorandum Book, i66w. 
Merchants, meetings of, 20, 22 

dress of, 47, 48 

Mercury, 224, 225, 227-30 

Parapet walks, 8, 9 

Privateers, 107, 112, 133, 138, 

170, 190, 220 
Roads and coaches, 4, 5 
African, 3, 171 
American, 3, 213 
Baltic, 3 

East Indian, 3, 4, 20, 21, 212 
Irish, 3, 169 
Obsolete, n, 12 
West Indian, 3 
Town's meetings, 20-2, 31, 


University, 82, 103 ., 209 n. 
Volunteers, 130 n., 132, 139 
Water pipes, 10 
Water-supply, 9, 208 n. 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 


Livesey & Co. , 45 
Lockett, Cyril, i66. 
Longueville, T. Longueville, too 
Lowry, Ann, 73 n. 

Ann, Jun., 73 . 

Elizabeth, 73 n. 

Roscoe, & Wardell, 72, 


Stringer, & Mann, 73 n. 

Thomas, 72, 73, 73 n. 

Thomas, Jun., 73 n. 

MACHELL, Richard, 129 
Mann, Thomas, 73 n. 
Martineau, Harriet, 28 n. 

John, 79, 80 

Mariott, 79 

Mason, Bishop, 113 n. 

Stanhope, 112 

Matthie, Ellen, 193 n. 
Matthie, Hugh, 193 . 

Menzies, John, 49, 50 

Merchants, meetings of, 20-2, 31, 


Meredith, Sir William, 132 
Mersey Bank, 223-31 
Milnes, Hannah, 95 

Richard, 95, 95 . 

Richard Monckton, 95 . 

Mock Corporation of Sephton, 


Molyneux, Thomas, 172 
Moore, Sir Cleave, 9 
Morland, Alice, 115 

Thomas, 108, 115-17, 117 n. 

Morton, Hardie, Walker & Smyth, 

Moss, Dales, & Rogers, 18, 192 

Dales, Rogers, & Moss, 10, 195 

Rogers, & Moss, 196 

Amy Charlotte Edwards, 199 

Ellen, 193 

Gilbert Winter, 198, 200 

Hannah, 192 

Hannah, 194 

Henry, 46, 194 

James, 199 

Jane, 190 

John, Hurst House, 189 

John, 189, 191-8 

Sir John Edwards, 199, 199 . 

Rev. John James, 198-9 

Margaret, 193 

Margaret E. Edwards, 200 

Sutton, & Co., 190 

Thomas, 189-91 

Thomas, & Co., 190 

Sir Thomas Edwards, 198-9 

Thomas & John, 191 

Tom Cottingham Edwards, 

199, 199 . 

NAYL^R, Christopher John, 181 

Dorothy, 173, 181 

John, 173 

John, 181, 182 

John, 181 


Nayfar. RkterdGMHpkv. 
L.. Hi 

>4 6. 14* 

Conntry bankers'. 15. 04. * 37, 

Depreciation o(Baak of Bag laad. 


Lhwrpool Corporation. 144 5* 

OGDKM. Elisabeth. 9$ 

- Penelope. 9$ 

- Phoebe. 95 

- Richard. 96 

- Sejnuel. 95 

"Old Sttft-r, Ttw" (Rev. James 
Aspinall). 63 ., ill. 1*3. 149. 


Old ham. Isaac. 139 
Orrrll. John. 6 . 

PANICS, commercial. r Com- 

mercial panics 
Parke. Alice. 115 

Ann. 115 

- Anne. 113. iaa 

- Cecilia Anne, 114 

- Cecilia A. P.. 114 

- Dorothy, na 

- Hannah. 115 
-^^~ ft rieywood. 06 

Hcywood ft Con way . 96 

- James, Lord Wenaleydak. 

II4-S. 4 

- John. lit 

- John. 114 

- Preston Fryers, 113-14 

- Ralph. 114 

- Thomas, in. tit 

- Thomas. 97. tti. 11315. 

- Thomas, ft Co.. us 

- Thomas John. 113. lit. 119. 

Parker, Sedman. 315 m. 

J. A.. "History otf 

pool.'* i. 63 .. 3 
Coneruoas of. a\. 134 m.. 

161 .. toy*.. soo-toM. 


IMi. WJbam. 
Porter. Charts*, fy 

T. C. 179 

Potts. Artfcv. 73 . 

^PMMllL PhiiaiBB. SM-J, SM - 

Captain P.. toe . 

Pimtosi. Wmasn. 113 

107. in. 133, iji, 170. 

Kawbnsoa. Robert. 77 
- ft Roberts. 77. 7* 
Refafecs Fraoce. ise, toe 
Rastnctioa of CAM payeiMti. 15. 


KMMHHJIIII of cash payeMiH. M. 


TTIifcuifcni., JnUMi y 
Ridley. Sir Matthew W.. Ban.. 

- Vtscooat. 114 
Rifby. James, tjj 
k.ff . Mis*, tit 
Roberts. Jane eiksn 77 

- John. 74. 7- 

- Richard. T- 

- Robert. 77 
Robiasi Nkfcola*. 179 
Rofen. Edward. 194 

- Edward. 194 

- ftUptty. 194 

Roscoe. Clark*, ft Roacoe. M. 63. 
64. il. M 

- Clarke. Wardefl. ft Ca. 7 


2 4 2 


Roscoe. Edward, 70 

Henry, 71 

Sir Henry, 71, 80 

James, 70 

Margaret, 70 

Margaret, 70 

Mary Anne, 71 

Richard, 71 

William, 4, 53, 57, 59-61. 81-3, 


William Caldwell, 81 

William Stanley, 63, 68, 76-81 

Ryle, John C. , 90 n. 

SANDBACH, Gilbert R., 47 

Samuel, 47 

Serjeantson, Elizabeth, 99 

William, 99 

Shaw, Ellen, 57 
Shepherd, Dr. William, 58 
Sheridan, Richard B., 88 

Thomas, 88 

Sitwell, Alice, 115 

Francis, 115 

Sir George, Bart., 115 

Sir Sitwell, Bart., 115 

Slaves and slavery, 4, 63 ., 133, 141, 

171, 20O, 212 

Smith, Egerton, 224-5 

J. B., 207 . 

James, 161 . 

James, & Son, 161 . 

Smyth, Edward, 88, 89 

Thomas, 84-9 

Rev. Thomas, 88 

William, 223, 225, 229, 230 

Prof. William, 87, 88, 177 

Smythe, Ann, 115 

John Groome, 115 

Sovereigns and half-sovereigns, 22, 

23. 43 

Speculations, 19, 25-7 
Staniforth. Ingram, Bold, & Daltera, 


Samuel, 129-30 

Sarah, 131 n. 

Staniforth, Thomas, 127 9 

Rev. Thomas, 130, 130 . 

131 . 

Stanyforth, E. W., 131 . 
Statham, Richard, 146, 148 
Steer, Catharine, 134 
Stonehouse, James, 204 
Stringer, James, 73 n. 
Stuart, Miss, 168 
Syers, Robert, 207 

TARLETOX, Banastre, 62 

Clayton, 144, 146 

John, 76-8, 80 

John, M.P. , 153 n. 

Thomas, 196, 210 n. 

Taylor, Hannah, 192 

Moss, & Co. , 190 

Thomas, 192 

Thompson, Arthur, 101 n. 

Elizabeth, 101 

Frances C. , 101 n. 

Henry Yates, 103 n. 

James, Jun. , 101 . 

Samuel, 97, 99, 100, 140 

Samuel Henry, 101, 103 

William, Jun., 101 n. 

Yates, Rev. S. A. , 103 . 

Threlfall, Alice, 219 

John, 217-19 

John Mayor, 218-19 

Threlfall's Brewery Co. Ltd., 219 
Tooke, Thomas, 26, 27 
Town's meetings, 20-2, 31, 144-6 
Troughton, Richard, i 

Richard, 211 

Susan, 2ii 


103 n. , 209 n. 
Usury Acts, 45 


VOLUNTEERS, 130 ., 132, 139 
dress of, 132 


Walk**, iUcMtd. M. 116. 117 .. 


KichanJ. 117 . 

W.. MJ. a*9 

Wardeil. WdliM. 7- 7J. 73 
Wam. SMwel. 94 

WMMll Nicholas. 6e. 105 

Waterloo Dank. an. sjo 

Hotel, tat 

Wail. Rkbard. 117 . 

WriH, WUloufhby D. O.. too i . 

lEBll^fcllj Httoicr, too . 

Wcmltydak. Lord. 114 13 

nmlii1 epitaph oa. us 

West. Witaey M.. 161 

\\ iliertoa, Beaunool. GnBMBt 

Co.. 233. n6. tjo 
Williams. Gomer . 133. taj m. 
WMli I * Co.. CktiUr. 77 
William* ft Co.. Lemd**. 135, ai8 
Willtanuoo. Alice. 115 

Robert. 115 

Williamson's AJvtrtiur, 169 
Wilson. Edward. 117 m. 



| . 

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